Mainly localized in the areas Andines of the Peru, the Bolivia, and the Ecuador, one also meets of them representatives in the south of the Colombia, like in the north of the Argentine and the Chile, which corresponds to the era of maximum extension of the Empire INCA whose Quechua was the common language.
The word “Quechua” was in the beginning the name of tribal groups which after having dominated the close populations, founded about the 12th century the kingdom of Cusco. About the 13th century, the dynasty appears INCA which of kingdom, became an empire conquering, unifying people with the various cultures by imposing their language then called Runa simi (“language of the men” or “language of the world”), and practitioner a colonizing policy: transfers of populations and craftsman and scientist sending in order to exchange and to standardize knowledge and techniques. It is only at the time of Spanish colonization, that the language taken the name of Quechua. The Spanish missionaries who adopted the quechua like language of communication and evangelization, completed to propagate this language on vast territories with the detriment of older languages.
In Ecuador, Quechuas constitute one of thirteen recognized indigenous nationalities, itself made up of thirteen people distinct: Karambi, Natabuela, Otavalo, Kayambi, Kitu Kara, Panzaleo, Chibuleo, Salasaka, Waranka, Puruhá, Kañari, Saragura and Kichwa of the Amazonia. (see: Native-born people of Ecuador).
- Language quechua
- Program of forced sterilizations (under Alberto Fujimori)
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