The quechua or runasimi ( runa = human; simi = language) indicates a group of Langue S spoken with the Peru (where the quechua the statute of official language since 1975 has), like in other areas of the the Andes, since the south of the Colombia until the north of the Argentine. It counts approximately ten million speakers, including two million in Ecuador, four million and half in Peru and a million and half in Bolivia. It is subdivided in many varieties. Most widespread (south of Peru and Bolivia) is the quechua known as “cuzquénien”, which has an old written tradition tonic at the time colonial (16th century).
The quechua was the lingua franca of the civilization INCA (but not its official language, which was the Aymara). The spectacular current territorial extension of the quechua is due to the fact that it was promoted with the general row of lengua by the Spanish colonizer.
The quechua has three vowels: I, has and U (or)
Each Occlusive consonant (labial, dental consonant, palatal, velar and uvular) has a simple alternative, an alternative glottale and an aspired alternative (example: p, p' and pH).
Syntax and morphology
The quechua is a agglutinant Langue, building its words using stable suffixes, with the number of a hundred.
The nominal Syntagme consists of a base with which come to associate possible possessive suffixes (close to the people of the conjugation), modifying suffixes and accidental suffixes (which are 12). A possible suffix of nonplurality is placed between the first and the seconds.
The verb phrase, located at the end of the sentence, consists of marks of time, aspects, transitions, post-verbs and marks of the person.
First person plural is duplicated in " us inclusif" (us, including you) and " us exclusif" (us, but not you).
The concept of kind is inoperative in quechua, and that of number has an importance less than in the Indo-European languages.
The quechua is particularly rich and moderate to express the implication of the subject in the expressed processes, and in particular the methods of its knowledge of the aforesaid lawsuit.
- the “R” quechua is rolled as “to Spanish” the
- “H” is aspired
- “CH” decides “tch”
- the “L” decides “with Spanish” (“L” wet) the
- the “p'”, you and the “ch'” are “p”, " t" and glottalized “CH” ; in less erudite terms, that means that the voice of the speaker stops a fraction of a second after the emission of the consonant, then pronounces the vowel which follows detached well from the consonant, instead of connecting the two sounds as in a banal syllable.
French loansSome words of origin quechua were introduced in French via the Spanish , in particular Alpaga, Condor, Coca, Guano, LAMA, Pampa, Puma, Quinoa, and Vigogne.
An interminable orthographical controversy opposes the partisans writing of the quechua with three Vowel S ( trivocalists ) with those which prefer to employ the five vowels of the Spanish ( pentavocalists ). It is generally allowed that, of a point of phonological sight , speakers completely quechuaphones distinguish that three vowels (, and). However, them bilingual speakers (also Spanish-speaking), who often have learned how to write in Spanish, tend to note five vowels as in this last language (they will note sometimes I , sometimes E where the trivocalists recommend the use single of I , and sometimes U , sometimes O , where trivocalists recommend to use only U ).
Trivocalists and pentavocalists are generally of agreement to admit that these alternatives (known as free by the linguists) are not carrying direction (they do not have a phonological value), but appear systematically, for reasons of articulatory physics, in the presence of the consonants known as uvular or post-velar , but practically not in other cases.
The opinion most usually allowed today among the academics thus recommends to limit to three vowels the transcription of this language, in order to avoid the useless multiplication of alternatives of C-Ws communication according to the dialects and the transcriptions. This position remains however disputed by many autochtones, which judge paradoxically intellectualizing and disconnected from reality (paradox, since the phonological system of the quechua is reduced to three vowels; but this paradox is explained by the pregnancy of the models inherited colonization). It presents also the disadvantage of making null and void of many works (dictionaries, grammars, anthologies…) written with the orthography pentavocalist and which does not seem close being replaced, fault of financing. Lastly, she neglects the fact that the contemporary quechua is métissé with Spanish -- who, made him without the shade of a doubt call to five vowels (but or the word remains foreign with the quechua, and it should be transcribed with the Spanish standards, or it is integrated into the phonological system quechua, i.e. with a system trivocalic).
- Quechuas (people)
- Linguistic Negation in quechua
- Dictionary of the languages
- Languages by family
- Swadesh List of the quechua of Cuzco
- Runasimi.de Vocabulary French-quechua with dialectal alternatives, and texts in quechua
- Dictionary Freelang Quechua Argentinian (of Santiago del Estero) - French/Argentinian French-quechua (of Santiago del Estero)
- Dictionary Freelang Quechua of Cuzco-French/French-quechua of Cuzco
- Quechua in Cochabamba (Spanish-speaking site, but with a dictionary French-quechua/quechua-French)
- Of many bonds in English
- (Interview in quechua of Fredy Ortiz, singer of the group quechua Uchpa, in the newspaper of AlmaSoror, Spanish translation available)
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