The puma ( Puma concolor ) belongs to the family of the Félidé S, Puma concolor is only Puma .
It is also known in certain areas under the name of cougar , lion of the mountains or sometimes, by abuse language, under the term of panther.
PeelingThe peeling of the puma is uniform ( concolor means “of only one color”), even if one guesses sometimes stripes on his forelimbs. Its color remains in tons fawn-coloured S and varies the brown russet-red one in the tropical areas with the yellow gray in the arid areas. The lower part of the body is clearer, energy of the cream-coloured color to the white.
The length of the hairs depends on the Natural environment in which the animal lives: they are hard and short in the areas hot and long in the cold areas. The cases of Albinisme are rare, but the cases of Mélanisme are frequent.
General aspect and measurementsOn average, the male measures between 1 meter and 2.30 meters, the record being of 2.90 meters, tail included/understood. The mass of the puma lies between 25 kg and 100 kg; the largest known individual weighed 120 kg,), more sunk at his end, is one of the characteristics of the puma. Lastly, it has long, pointed and retractile claws, and four fingers. Its legs of behind are broader and powerful that those of front, which enables him to leap effectively and to advance easily in snow or on a escarpé ground.
HeadThe puma has a small head of round form provided with short and drawn aside ears which give him an exceptional auditive acuteness. The power of its Mâchoire S is larger than that of any dog. The fur of the chin is blanchâtre as well as the Museau. The truffle is pink and its sense of smell is very developed. The color of the eyes varies green with the yellow amber and its field of view is very broad. The puma is able to see well in the darkness.
Lifestyle and reproduction
LocomotionThe puma can run up to 50 km/h, i.e. much less quickly than an cheetah. But its physical qualities enable him to cross up to seven meters; they can also make think of a fort Ronronnement. Lastly, during the season of the coupling, the pumas emit kinds of powerful mewings.
Drive outThe pumas are carnivorous S (see table below), they attack in general large the Mammifère S like the stag S or the dash S but also of the smaller animals if they need some, it is able to them even to fish or to nourish insects or lizards. In Latin America, the pumas undergo the competition of the jaguars which leave them only preys of intermediate size. Lastly, the puma can kill out of the livestock (horses, sheep, cows, goats, etc). Hard gestation between 88 and 96 days and have a yellowish brown peeling with black spots or chestnut which disappear towards the 16 month age. The kittens open the eyes at ten days and eat meat at six weeks.
The puma is classified in appendix II of the QUOTE, i.e. in vulnerable Espèce. The pumas of Florida and Central America belong to the Annexe I and are threatened of extinction. One estimates between 4.000 and 6.000 the number of lions of the mountains in California where it is protected by the law, between 4.500 and 5.000 with the Colorado; the couguars of Florida are estimated at approximately 50 and constitute the subspecies most threatened of the American continent. In the other states, its hunting is legalized but subjected to the authorization of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service against 118 wolves.
Because of the Urbanization, the pumas more and more frequently find themselves in contact with the human ones, especially in the zones rich in stag S, their natural prey. Many of these cat-like die struck by cars or trucks. If one counted attacks of Pets (cat S, Chien S), they only turn very seldom to the Men like source of food.
Social representations and literary uses
Names of the pumaThe various names and expressions used to indicate the puma reflects the diversity of the languages and the cultures of the American continent. The Amerindian people knew the puma and baptized it in a various way: it was “cabcoh” for the Maya S. the name “puma” comes from the language Quechua spoken by the INCA S. The latter killed them when they attacked with the Guanaco S and the Vigogne S. The people which occupied banks of the Big lakes thought that its tail poked the storms”.
Importance of the puma in the cultures précolombiennesCivilizations précolombiennes révéraient the puma like a god or a supernatural being, following the example Jaguar. In the the Andes, the god Viracocha is represented by the reason for the puma on the door of the Sun of Tiahuanaco. For Incas, at the time of the eclipses of the sun, Int, god of the sun were devoured by a celestial monster compared to a puma. The pumas were seen like the representatives of the Gods of the mountain. When this celestial phenomenon occurred, there the peasants of the Andes made still a maximum of noise but this time, to frighten the cat-like one. The name of the Lac Titicaca means the “lake of the stone pumas”. The plans of the town of Cuzco to the Peru would have been conceived by taking again the silhouette of the cat-like one. The pumas arrived to South America since north by the Isthme of Panama here two to four million years.
SubspeciesThe specialists could count to 30 subspecies of pumas. She is threatened of extinction in spite of the efforts of the group of safeguard of the panther of Florida ( The Florida Panther Recovery TEAM ), founded in 1976. There is currently a main effort on behalf of the State of Florida to save these local panthers, their number being indeed in worrying reduction: breeding in captivity, safeguarding of game, artificial propagation, etc Nevertheless, new classification makes it possible to consider a reproduction of safeguarding per crossing with other old subspecies less threatened of couguars of North America, which are in the same phylogenetic line, and to arrive, by selection, to find the characters of the panther of Florida, with the assistance of breedings or natural parks of other States.
- pumas of mountain , documentary British of Matt Arkins carried out in the mountains of the Montana and deserts of the Utah.
- faunal Species threatened or vulnerable to Quebec
- a page of summary on a personal site
- Site of the foundation in favor of the pumas ( The Cougar Fund )
- a card on the pumas of the Natural site '' Washington Mapping Program ''
- Card on the puma on (site of the zoo of San Diego)
- a file on the site of the '' Washington Department Fish and Wildlife ''
- Site devoted to the panther of Florida
- WILDLIFE SPECIES: Puma concolor: many data on the site of the National service of the forests in the United States of America
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