See also: Pueblo
The Indian Pueblos , of Spanish pueblo (village), are Amerindian alive in houses juxtaposed out of stone, as at Hopis, or in adobe (valley of the Rio Grande), called pueblos . By extension, one uses the term to designate their inhabitants, although the pueblos do not train single people. On the contrary, they are distinct tribes speaking each one their language. One however gathers them under the name of Pueblos, because they share the same culture. Each pueblo has its own government. The religious centers are in Kiva S. Traditionnellement, Pueblos lived agriculture and their potteries, weavings and jewels are famous. The two most important tribes are the Hopi S and the Zuñi S. the Pueblos Indians of the time précolombienne are called Anasazi S.
TerritoriesCurrently, there are pueblos in center-north, the North-West and the center of the New Mexico, the majority in the fertile valley of the Río Grande. In Arizona the villages Hopis are. These pueblos was already inhabited at the time of the arrival of the Spaniards at the 16th century. The latter were informed of surroundings 70 pueblos.
Anansazis had a territory including/understanding the always inhabited territories, most of south-west and west of current the Colorado, all the northern part of Arizona, as well as part of the current State of Utah. Some pueblos were abandoned following periods of dryness. The most famous vestiges of pueblos are Chaco Canyon and Bandelier in New Mexico, Mesa Verde (Colorado) and Canyon of Chelly (Arizona).
StructureThe pueblos are dwellings built on several stages. Highest still inhabited today is the Pueblo de Taos, with five stages. Each stage is a little in withdrawal compared to that of below. They are connected between them by scales. The parts of the same stage are connected enter they by interior doors. On the places the Kiva S undergrounds are, of the places of religious ceremonies reserved to the men, which one reaches by the roof.
The period Basketmaker II (100 to 500)One can date the beginning from the construction of pueblos during the time Basketmaker II. At that time the Anasazi S start to build houses out of well ( pit houses ) with walls out of wooden blocked up of Torchis. These constructions are round, of a diameter of 2,50 m to 9 Mr. They have one stage. The provisions are stored in baskets in Vannerie, ( basketmaker is the English word for basket maker).
Basketmaker III (500 to 750)During the following centuries (period Basketmaker III), agriculture develops with the appearance of bean and cotton. One finds the first potteries gray. Excavations in Chaco Canyon, for example in the vestiges of the village of Shabik' eshchee, show changes in architecture. So at the beginning of this era the houses always round and are lowered approximately meter in the ground, they later rectangular and are stuck the ones to the others, forming streets and places. For the first time, one distinguishes from the buildings for the ceremonies, always round: in fact the first Kiva S do not have yet the entry in the roof but on the side.
Pueblo I and II (750 to 1150)The techniques develop. The houses are stuck the ones to the others, formant of great whole of 50 parts and more. Two styles of villages exist: those grouped in half-circle around a central place with the kivas, as Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon where 1500 people lived, and others composed of several parallel streets and places.
Pueblo III (1100 to 1300)The period of sees the greatest geographical extent of the culture of Pueblos. In the canyons, where of Cliff Dwellings (habitats in cliffs are built), either one builds walls fronts of the natural shelters (Chaco Canyon), or one digs the rock as in Puye in the canyon of Santa Clara, not far from current Pueblo de Santa Clara.
Pueblo IV (1300 to 1600)It is one period great shifts in population. The most widespread thesis is that of periods of dryness which drained formerly fertile canyons. The population of Chaco Canyon decreases and the place is finally completely given up, while the pueblos in Arizona on the Hopi territory and along the valley of the Rio Grande increase.
Pueblo V (Since 1600)There are no changes in architecture. And more and more of pueblos are abandoned for various reasons. On their arrival, the Spaniards listed 71 pueblos, whereas currently, there is not more but 19 in New Mexico and those on the three mesas Hopi in Arizona. The Spaniards introduced Catholicism at Pueblos and each pueblo has its church.
Languages spoken in the pueblosCurrently, the very large majority of the Indians pueblos speaks English, in addition to the language first in a variable degree from one pueblo to another. The languages first are: the Hopi, the Keresan, the Tewa and the Zuñi.
The 19 villages pueblos in the New MexicoThese pueblos is always inhabited, although many families settled in villages with the surroundings and return only at the time of the ceremonies. Each pueblo has its clean Dialecte. They draw most of their resources from tourism (entered of the pueblo, sale of artisanal objects like the pottery). Some opened casino S and ground of Golf.
Pueblos of the family of language Kiowa-TanoThey are the pueblos more in north and the east of Río Grande.
Tiwa of North
- Pueblo de Taos (Tuah-Your): located on the edges of the Río Pueblo, an affluent of Río Large, it is a very old place of dwelling. It is since 1992 registered voter on the the world list of the inheritance of UNESCO.
- Pueblo Picuris. Since the years of revolt against the Spaniards (1680 - 1696), the population decreased there continuously. It counts currently only 300 inhabitants and is very américanisé.
- Pueblo San Juan : part of the population lives there only for the periods of the great ceremonies.
- Pueblo Santa Clara : " Kha-Po" (valley of the wild pinks).
- Pueblo San Ildefonso : small a pueblo especially known for its pottery black-on-black.
- Pueblo Nambe: Nambe means " populate ground ronde". The Spanish influence is very strong there.
- Pueblo Tesuque (Small fireclay cup-Sugeh): small a pueblo which exists since the 13th century, located at the north of Santa Fe.
- Pueblo Pojoaque: Po-Suae-Geh " the place where eau" is sought; , inhabited, according to archaeological research, since 1500 years. It has several times given up by its populations, the last time between 1900 and 1934.
Tiwa of the South
- Pueblo Sandia: its foundation goes back to the same period as that of Pojoaque. Currently the pueblo has surroundings 500 inhabitants who have since 1952 the running water and electricity.
- Pueblo Isleta: name of Spanish origin meaning " small île". The pueblo is inhabited since the arrival of the Spaniards, at least.
Towa or Jemez
- Pueblo Jemez counts approximately 1500 inhabitants. Only the village principal Walatowa is accessible to the tourists. In 1830 the survivors of the pueblo Pecos joined it.
Pueblos of language KeresanIt is about an isolated language.
- Pueblo Laguna (Ka Weikah: populate lake) large a pueblo with more than 8.000 members, by counting the inhabitants of the villages which are attached to it.
- Pueblo Acoma : Acoma means " populate rock blanc". The pueblo is inhabited since the 12th century, the monks franciscains have there establishes a mission in 1629.
- Pueblo Cochiti, which is américanisé the most with electricity, the running water, etc
- Pueblo Santo Domingo (Khe-Wa): the fifth pueblo by its size. Jewels and traditional pottery there are made.
- Pueblo Zia (Tsia): this pueblo has a history of at least 600 years. Its symbol of the sun (zia) became that of the State of New Mexico.
- Pueblo Santa Anna " Tamaya" : this place is inhabited only at the time of the ceremonies. Usually people live two other villages, one on banks of the Rio Grande, the other on the Jemez river.
- Pueblo San Felipe.
Pueblo of Zuñi languageThe zuñi is an isolated language which is spoken only in the south about Gallup on the reserve about Zuñi.
- Pueblo Zuñi (She-We-Na): one works there the turquoise.
Pueblos in ArizonaThe pueblos of Arizona are all set out again on three mesas on the reserve Hopi.
First Mesa (first Mesa), in the west of Keams Canyon, there are three villages at the top:
Walpi : oldest, founded in 1690 when the inhabitants left the old Koechaptevela village, with the foot of the mesa, by fear of Spanish attacks. A very traditional village without running water nor electricity.
- Sichomovi: Created in the middle of the 18th century, close to Walpi, because this last was over-populated.
- Hano (Tewa): a village of Tewa, which had taken refuge at Hopis at the time of the revolt of the pueblos. The inhabitants kept their language and their Tewa traditions. It is just beside Sichomovi.
Second Mesa (second Mesa), 16 km in the west of First Mesa, there are three villages on the top. Before the revolt of the pueblos, they were with the foot of the mesa:
Shungopavi : Oldest pueblo Hopi created by the clan of the bears.
- Sipaulovi: Founded in the years 1690.
- Mishongnovi: Created about 1600 with the foot of the mountain, then moved towards the top in the years 1690, was to protect Corn Rock, a crowned place.
Third Mesa (third Mesa):
Kykotsmovi (New Oraibi): Its name means " the hill of the houses in ruine". Create by inhabitants of Old Oraibi.
- Orayvi (Old Oraibi): a very old foundation going back to 1150.
At the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century three villages were founded following scissions. Hotevilla, Bacavi and Moenkopi.
HistoryFor the period before the arrival of Europeans
See also: Anasazi
The Conquistador be under the orders of Francisco Vásquez de Coronado arrive at the pueblo of Zuñis in 1540, believer to have found one of the seven gold cities of Cibola. In 1698, the year of the creation of a permanent Spaniard colony in what today is New Mexico, the pueblo Acoma was almost entirely destroyed by the troops of Juan de Oñate in answer to died of thirteen of its soldiers. As a sign of peace one built a catholic mission in 1629 there. However tensions persisted and led to the revolt of the pueblos in 1680: they organized a common attack, overcoming the difficulty which were their many languages and dialects. The causes of the revolt are the exploitation of the Indian labor, the obligation to pay a tax with the Spaniards and forced christianization. Until 1698, there was not only one any more Spaniard in the area.
After the américano-Mexican War (1846-1848), New Mexico and Arizona became, in 1848, territories of the United States, with the statute of states in 1912.
CompanyThe company of the Pueblos Indians, separately Tewas, is matriligne. The community is organized in Clan S, which carries names of plants, animals or phenomena natural. Although the buildings are built by the men, they are the property of the women. When an young man Marie, it joined the family of his wife. At Tewas the young couple joined is the clan of the man or the woman, by taking account of the economic situation of each one.
Each pueblo has a self government directed by the companies of men. The Spaniards, and later the Americans, founded a civil governor, in theory a personality which had their confidence. But in fact, they was the leaders of the pueblos which controlled the nominations, which explains why traditional rites were preserved in spite of the presence of catholic missionaries since the 17th century.
The Pueblos Indians were farmers and cultivated especially corn, marrows and beans. Since the 6th century they also raised turkeys. There were only few exchanges between different the pueblos.
The men spun and wove clothing with the cotton which they cultivated. The weaving looms were installed in the kivas.
The weapons were the arc and the arrow S, the Lance, different bludgeon S, as well as a kind of sword in Obsidienne, as used the Aztèques of them. They also had shields out of leather of bison and later also out of cowhide.
The baskets and other ustensils in Vannerie were used everywhere, as well as the pottery. Each pueblo uses decorations which are clean for him.
ReligionBeside Christianity, Pueblos always practice their worships traditional animists. They are not entertainments for tourists. On the contrary, the pueblos are often prohibited the abroads at the time of the great ceremonies.
The rites and ceremonies proceed under the responsibility of the secret societies. The crowned objects are preserved in the kivas where are held also certain ceremonies, others outside. In this case, they are accessible to the women who do not have the right to penetrate the kivas. There exist ceremonies of rain, harvest, hunting, war, etc At Hopis, they govern all the daily life. The spirits are represented by Kachinas. A dancer who puts the mask of sound kachina becomes this spirit. In Santa the women had the right to be dancers of kachina to the difference in the others pueblos where they were as well as possible accepted like members of the companies of kachinas.
With died of a person, it was buried without ceremony and its goods flarings. Indeed, the illnesses and death were for Pueblos does it black magic. Those which had been in contact with one dying or a corpse were to follow a ceremony of purification.
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