The Transport jointly , or collective transport implements vehicles adapted to the simultaneous reception several people. In France, it is generally accessible n the other hand from the purchase of a transport document (Billet, ticket, chart of Abonnement,…). They can be distributed according to transportation route which they borrow, according to their functionality, finally according to the regulation (public or deprived) applicable.
Public transport is often organized, in France, by the public authorities. It is what explains their abusive denomination: " publics" transport; ; it would actually be necessary to call this public transport organized by the public authorities " public transport travellers " , as it is often the case, or better " passenger transports organized by the public authorities ".
The article which follows deals with all the means of transport of people (or travellers), in collective mode.
Transport in commun runs and transportation routes
See also: Transport
- Surface transport people, jointly
- Road transport of people, jointly: Bus (for the urban services), Coach (for the interurban services), Trolley bus, collective Taxi traditional or , Vehicle of great handing-over, Vehicles of small handing-over, covoiturage, vehicles of less than 9 places.
- rail-bound Transport people: Train, FOR THE THIRD TIME, the RER, Subway, Tram, tyred Tram, Tram-train and Train-tram, Subway of surface
- Other guided transport people: Monorail, Hovertrain, Funicular, Cog railway, cable car
- Maritime transport people: Steamer, maritime shuttle (territorial continuity)
- Transport by water way of people, jointly: Water-bus, ferry
- aerospace Transport people
- Air transport people, jointly: Plane
- space Transport people
- multimode Transport people
- Other public transport (of leisure)
- Transport in the montgolfier
- Transport in pedestrian roulotte
Functionalities and services ensured by public transport
- Urban transport (agglomeration)
- Transport interurban (community of agglomeration, trains or regional and interregional lines express train: TER/LER)
- tourist Transport
Financing of public transport, and applicable duty (public law or private law)
See also: Gate: Right, Gate: Economy
In France, public transport people can be ordered like public services, by the state or territorial collectivities, or be organized by private companies of public transport of passengers. This is why they are often called " public transport " , but it is advisable to specify " travellers " , in order not to lend with " public transport of marchandises".
Even within the framework of the public service, the client, who remains the organizer of transport, can sub-contract the provision of the means of transport (vehicle, driver.) at a private company, which is then responsible for the control of the vehicle.
The World Trade organization (OMC) recommends the opening of the majority of the service sectors to competition, by the directives which would preach by the General agreement on the trade of the services (AGCS), amongst other things, the very general opening to the market and the Concurrence for the majority of the goods, the goods and the service S, the states preserving only a Liberté and a capacity of organization and very limited Contrôle.
On this point, the O.M.C communicates: (NEWS: Press release 2002 - PRESS/299 - June 28th, 2002): " The managing director of OMC and the president of the negotiations on the services led to OMC deny that, as some claim it, the public services are threatened: Mr. Mike Moore, Managing director of the World Trade organization, and Mr. Ambassador Alejandro Jara (Chile), President of the extraordinary session of the Council commercial of the services of OMC, underlined today that the negotiations led to OMC in order to liberalize the trade of the services did not threaten the public services and that these sectors of the saving in services in fact were excluded from the negotiations.
expressing itself before an important series of meetings on the services which must take place the next month, these two representatives of OMC stressed that to encourage competition by the means of liberalization could get enormous economic advantages, in particular in the developing countries. But they stated clearly that each government had the right to exclude from the negotiations the public services - including the departments of health, from education and water supply - and that it belonged to them to decide sectors of services which they wished to liberalize and of those which they did not wish libéraliser."
In 2007, in France, the distribution of the missions is overall the following one:
Distribution of the roles between the state, the communities and the companies
- Services depending on the state (under-reserves): Transilien, trains of broad outlines, TGV
- Services depending from the territorial collectivities (under reserves): T.E.R., Subways, trams, bus, certain local lines of coaches and agglomerations, lines of coaches interurban/regional (L.E.R.), maritime shuttles
- Services organized by the private sector (business firms): Air lines, steamers intended for cruising
Financings of the infrastructures and responsibilities for the exploitation
The financing of the vehicles and the infrastructures (roads, railways, rolling stock) can be allocated to the owner (controls of urban transport, for example) or can return to independent structures, conceived for this purpose. Thus, S.N.C.F. is responsible for the organization of transport, but Rail network of France (R.F.F.) is responsible for the realization and the maintenance of the infrastructures (stations, railways…).
Advantages and disadvantages taking into consideration individual transport
Consumption of energyPublic transport is much more effective than individual transport, in terms of consumption of energy, except the plane, which is the means of transport more polluting by passenger.
Traffic circulationPublic transport also makes it possible to facilitate circulation, a bus for example can transport more than 60 people by using same surface as two cars which they are on average occupied per 1,08 person. Public transport does not occupy moreover space of public carpark.
- They can be faster than individual transport, provided that the networks rather dense, are separated from individual circulation and the rather frequent service roads, which is not often the case.
- In urban environment, it should be noted that the bicycle is a means of transport (which does not belong to public transport) whose effectiveness exceeds under certain conditions public transport, in terms of speed, flexibility in use and consumption of energy. However, it does not ensure the same service, nor the same comfort level in particular in the event of bad weather.
SafetyThere are less Accident S, but more Agression S in public transport that with urban individual transport.
Consumption of energyHowever, the quantity of power consumption by anybody and kilometer depends on the average occupancy rate; in the case of residence-work displacements, this rate is structurally low because all displacements are done in a direction the morning and the other in end-of-day. One then speaks about '' pendular migration '', it creates two zones of overactivity in beginning and end-of-day. The curve of the activity of public transport follows this evolution of demand and presents two bumps corresponding to the rush hours at each end and a hollow to the center corresponding to a minimal activity during which the vehicles under are attended. One calls this phenomenon the camel in the jargon of transport of passengers
Cost of the investmentsOn the other hand, transport in commun runs requires important, variable investments according to the technique used and, of this fact justify themselves only in the zones of rather high population density.
FlexibilityMoreover, they do not render the same service as a means of individual transport:
- they impose the respect of a Horaire,
- the correspondences are sometimes constraining,
- they do not ensure the Porte-à-porte,
- the transport of the luggage is limited.
- the return to oneself to the pause lunch (excel relief cock against the stress) is very seldom possible.
Situation of transport in commun runs in the other countries of the world
Appendix: examples of tariffs applied by the communes
to compare the prices of public transport in various cities, one can use like reference the price of a voyage, insofar as, contrary to the subscriptions, whose methods of use are strongly variable according to the network concerned, this tariff formula is found on the near total of the networks.
However, the date of update being unknown, like its author, as well as the document source where figure this information, the table below can comprise many errors!
Enfin, certain networks apply a tariff raised for the tickets with the unit in order to encourage the customers to acquire a subscription, which is a means of development of consumer loyalty of this one as well as increase the block speed in consequence of the reduction of perception on board by the driver. A contrario, certain cities apply a very weak price, even free, within the framework of a political volunteer of promotion of public transport near the not-users. The price of a voyage is thus an imperfect indicator and it is not possible to use it as reference valid for compare the prices of the voyages between the various cities.
Wikipédia articles in relation
- Public service
- the organization of the public transport in France
- Transport with the request
- Trade union of the haulage companies public travellers and rail-bound transport (U.T.P.)
- Grouping of the Authorities Responsible for Transport (G.A.R.T.)
- Day of the Public transport 2007.
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