See also: Proton (homonymy)
The proton is a subatomic particle carrying a electric Charge of 1,602×10-19 Coulomb S. It was discovered in 1919 by Ernest Rutherford. The core of the most widespread Isotope of the Atome of Hydrogène is a proton. The cores of the others Atome S are composed of Neutron S and protons maintained together by the strong Force.
A proton has a mass of 1,672 623 1×10-27 kg, which is approximately 1 836,15 times heavier than a electron. Its ray would be about 0,8 Femtomètre, for more precise measurements the results divergent according to the methods employed.
The protons are classified like Baryon S and are composed of two Quark S up and of a quark down , which are maintained together by the strong Force, transported by the Gluon S. Its charge electric is of: 2/3 + 2/3 - 1/3 = 3/3 is +1.
The electromagnetic Force being many orders of magnitude stronger than the Gravitation, the load of a proton must be equal to the load of a electron, if not the clear repulsion coming from the excess of electric Charge positive or negative would have a notable effect on the Expansion of the universe and thus on the matter incorporated gravitationally (Planet S, star S, etc). It is acquired that the Positron with the same load as the electron but of opposite sign; the same thing applies for the Antiproton and the proton.
When a proton can disintegrate within a core by weak Interaction, under the terms of a total assessment of favorable energy, it gives three particles: a Positron, a neutron and a electronic Neutrino (Radioactivity β). It is impossible for an isolated proton, because the neutron is already heavier than the proton.
In Chemistry and Biochemistry, the proton term can refer to the Ion Hydrogène in aqueous Solution (i.e., the ion Hydronium). In this context, a donor of proton is a Acide and an acceptor of proton is a bases (see the acido-basic reactions). Indeed, the hydrogen atom in its ultra-majority isotope is composed of a formed core of a single proton and without neutron, and of an electronic procession of only one electron. A hydrogen atom having lost an electron is thus a free proton. In an aqueous solution, one cannot really distinguish the ion hydronium H3O+ and the H+ proton, this last tending to constantly form connections with the water molecules (and the water molecules being ultra-majority, it is useless to take account of the formation of the H3O+ ions to calculate the number of water molecules).
A “monoprotic” Acide (Chloride hydrogen, Ethanoic acid, Acid nitric) can yield one proton by Molécule.
Notes and references of the article
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