The prostitution (of the Latin prostituere to put in front of, to expose to the public) is an activity consisting to accept or obtain, in exchange of a remuneration, sexual relationships; it is still to place at the disposal of a payer the sexual favors of a woman, or more rarely of a man. Although this activity is practiced by the members of the two sexes, it is generally the fact of the women (called prostitutes) but that relates to also the men within the framework of prostitution hétérosexuelle, homosexual, Travesti or Transsexuel. The generic term employed is prostitute. The prostitution is generally practiced in the hot districts (see the list of the hot districts in the world).
See the detailed article History of the prostitution , of which the crowned Prostitution.
EuropeIn the Europe of today, one usually opposes two designs of the prostitution, according to the answer to the question: the prostitution of exploitation which must be abolished, or is a form an activity as another which it is enough to regulate? Abolitionism and regimentation are thus two ways for the States of reacting to the existence of the prostitution.
In Mediterranean and European civilization, the regulation was chronologically the second attitude, since the first historical times until the Christianisme and the arrival of Christian emperors to the head of the Roman Empire cause abolitionists measurements. Those, in spite of their obvious inefficiency, are maintained until the 12th century, time when the regulations reappear and end up spreading.
At the 16th century, abolitionists measurements reappear in all Europe. They are again replaced by regulations at the 19th century.
Today, the most succeeded results of regulationist logic are in the legislations of the Netherlands and the Germany. The Austria and the Suisse are the two other regulationist countries, the Greece presenting an intermediate situation. The majority of the other countries are free trade. They refuse any regulation which can only guarantee the existence of the prostitution. In France, as in Belgium, the prostitution is not prohibited, but the sexual exploitation of others, the Proxénétisme is prohibited there. The Racolage is also in France.
The France, which was the country of origin of regimentation, changes orientation into 1946 with the law “Marthe Richard” and becomes the most committed country against the regulations in the international authorities by adopting a free trade mode which closes the brothels and envisages the creation of the services of prevention and social readjustment (SPRS). Since the law Marthe Richard, the abolitionism does not fight only any more for the abolition of the regulation of the prostitution but for the abolition of the prostitution as a whole.
The reasoning of the two involved camps is opposed on the bottom even problems. For the abolitionists, the prostitution is an attack with human dignity, and the person prostitute is a victim. For the regulationist ones, the prostitutes are sexual workers and the prostitution an activity which the State must control like all the others, i.e. by protecting the rights of the workers just as while preventing and by limiting the abuses from the employers. Thus of the 15 at the October 17th, 2005 took place a European conference prostitutes in Brussels which led to the drafting of a proclamation and a declaration of the rights of the workers of the sex.
Current policies with respect to the prostitution
The prostitution interests the authorities on the tax, moral and medical level. The policies of the temporal powers and religious are known and tested for a long time. The two principal tendencies are the abolitionism and the regulation.
The regulation was often done by the means of laws and registers of prostitutes. It is the current location of the Netherlands and the Germany where all the companies of 15 employees and more, including the brothels, must now obligatorily “have with the use” of the apprenties under penalty of financial penalties.
The abolitionism prevails in countries like Sweden and the majority of the American States . In Sweden, it is the customer and not the prostitute who is liable to a fine. This law however seems to be criticized by certain Swedish prostitutes.
These policies can be circumvented by the modern means of communication and the possibilities of sex tourism. It is of more difficult to prove than a sexual relationship took place following an exchange of money.
One can distinguish overall three political approaches on the question from the prostitution:
- regulationist: to frame this activity so that she is exerted in a legal framework, the prostitution is regarded as a normal community activity.
- free trade: the prostitutes are victims and the procurers of the criminals, the prostitutes are not sanctionnables. The customers can be sanctioned.
- prohibitionnist: the prostitutes and the procurers are criminals; organizes and justice sanction these activities. The customers can be sanctioned.
In France: the workers of the sex are not in favor of constraining legislations the such brothels, which do not enable them to preserve the choice of their customers, practices, schedules, prevention, etc the workers of the sex, joined together into Sitted on March 16th, 2007, concluded unanimously that they were against wage-earning.
In November 2007, they continue their dispute of the repression of soliciting while gathering in front of the Senate and challenge the members of Parliament again.
The opposite policies of the various European countries, who are not inevitably in conformity with their official legislation, pose problems of coordination, and involve intracommunity sex tourism. For example Belgium, which has a legislation almost identical to that of France, allows in fact, contrary to France, the exploitation of brothels on large scales, and their publicity in media of press or on Internet. Another example, publicity by Internet for services known as of escorting is done starting from these more tolerant countries, bound for country or such a publicity is prohibited.
Country where the remunerated sexual relationships are authorized or legislated
The prostitution exists in many countries; this tolerance can go from total legalization, with supposed prohibition, while passing by various regulations (Denmark). The references associated with each country point either on an article specifying the existence of the prostitution in the country, or on legal references (France, the United Kingdom).
- : South Africa, Algeria (Kabylie), Burkina Faso, Egypt (prohibited but practiced), Morocco, Senegal, Tanzania
- In America
- : Argentinian, Brazil et, Mexico
- In Asia
Countries which prohibit the remunerated sexual relationships
- : Algeria , Egypt
- In America
- : Belize, Burma, Laos , Thailand.
- In Europe
- : Albania, Ireland, Monaco, the Vatican ,
- In Oceania
- : Samoa
linups : in certain cases, a brothel-keeper (or mama-san if it is about Asian) solicits near a van who contains the girls. When a motorist stops the prostitutes leave the van to allow him to choose.
prostitution of window : form prostitution typical of the cold countries but limited to certain districts ( red light district ). The prostitute exposes herself in light behavior in a window. The negotiation is done by gestures through the pane or a window envisaged for this purpose. It is a form of particularly widespread prostitution in the Netherlands and in Belgium.
closed houses : called clubs , boudoirs , studios , cabarets or saunas , these establishments make it possible to the girls to receive their customers. These houses go from the bulge to the establishment great standing with shoe of payment by chart. The customer who returns there can ask to see the girls to choose some after a review of detail.
prostitution in discotheque : the prostitution can take place in any place attended by potential (it) S customer (E) S. That can be a discotheque like a Rave party.
split : Prostitute who solicited in called in the past not very frequentable bars roads.
flirty-fishing : form “prostitution missionary” developped at the point in the Secte of the Enfants of God and practiced between 1975 and 1987: the young people and pretty faithful used of their charm to provide new followers to their guru, David Berg (known as Brace-David). Officially this practice does not have any more course, the sect having been dissolved in 1978.
prostitution of beach , Tizi-Ouzou, Africa
prostitution coed : in France, the poverty of the students (200 000 in difficult financial position) led young women and young people to finance their studies by selling their " services" , for example by the means of advertisements on Internet. This phenomenon is in this country in increase. Studied trade union CUS advances the figure of 40.000 people concerned.
The means of meeting used for relations without remuneration like the marriage bureaus and the forums of meetings can also be diverted: the true nature of the relation is revealed at the last time.
The prostitution is often perceived as a problem because it is often with the hands of the organized Criminalité. Even the julots snack (individual upholders) are obliged to make delinquency to show their virulence. The prostitutes can then be victims of a form of Esclavage. Many prostitutes are also consuming Drogue S. the prostitutes are also concerned with the sexually transmitted diseases and covetousnesses which their incomes cause.
For the residents, the prostitution of street often is very badly lived because it decreases the prestige of the district and thus the value of the properties, in addition, the streets not having adapted medical devices are often soiled by urine and condoms which one can suppose to be worn.
In term of flow of populations, the prostitution involves true hemorrhages of young women of the countries from which they result towards their country from “work”, often distant several hundreds of kilometers. The criminal networks use moreover techniques of constraint like the confiscation of identity papers, the rape called “to break”, the family blackmail, the monitoring by upholders, and prohibition to leave the bosom gangster. It happens that the prostitutes are the object of traffic and are sold. They can also be doped of force: once dependant on drug, they are easier to supervise.
According to Sabine Dusch, the prostitution generates a world turnover of 60 billion euros. In 1998, the United Nations estimated that, each year, 4 million people was the object of a traffic at sexual ends, which generated between 5 and 7 billion dollars US of profits to the criminal groups.
As for the hemorrhage and the transfer of young women, according to Dusch, the women victims of the draft are definitely more numerous than those which are the object of a traffic at ends of domestic exploitation or labor at a cheap rate. According to UNO, these thirty last years, in Asia only, the draft of women and children at ends “of sexual exploitation” made more than 30 million victims.
The “pure and hard” communist countries often affirm not to know this type of activity.
Recent studies resumed by Richard Poulin estimate that 85 to 90% of the people prostitutes are submitted to a procurer on a world level.
Nonhuman animal prostitution
The prostitution was observed at nonhuman animal species, in particular at the penguins Adélie and the Insectes. ,
Around the prostitution created for itself a slang vocabulary to describe the activity or the person exerting it. Generally, these expressions took a pejorative character.
One qualifies for example a prostitute - but also a woman libertine - of " woman of bad vie" …
To make the pavement : Métonymie describing the way in which the prostitute awaits a customer. In Creole of West Africa, a prostitute is a " trottoire " or a " bottom-shop ".
The prostitution is sometimes called “the oldest trade of the world”, which questions the historian Michelle Perrot. For anthropologists it would be rather the Chamanisme, with the healers, who would be entitled to this denomination while for others it would be the trade of wise-femme lack a réf. Moreover the term trade had a direction varied during historical time.
Only between all the cities, Sparte is famous in Greece not to shelter any pornê . Plutarque explains it by the absence of noble metals and true currency - Sparte uses an iron currency which is not recognized nowhere elsewhere: no procurer would find interest to settle there. In fact, one does not find a trace of prostitution common to Sparte at the time antiquated or traditional.
With that, we can add this comment of Martine Costes-Péplinski: " The first trace of human life found to date goes back to 6 million years, the first tool goes back to 2,5 million years whereas the prostitution appears, like the war, only at the end of the Neolithic era, that is to say 5000 before Jesus Christ to the great maximum. It is to say if men and women shared thousand other occupations and concerns before devoting to this one… "
To paraphrase, the feminist lawyer Gunilla Ekberg denounces: “The prostitution, it is not the oldest trade of the world, it is the oldest lie”.
Prostitution in the popular culture
- Lament of the , Prostitutes Georges Brassens
- the : Category: Prostitution with the cinema
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