The propolis is a material collected by the Abeille S starting from certain plants. This vegetable resin is used by the bees as mortar and anti-infectious to cleanse the hive. It is collected for its therapeutic properties.
The origin of the word propolis is associated to the Greek pro who siginfie " in front of, in front of " , and polished " the cité" (Allusion to the reduction of the entry of the hive with propolis to defend the colony)
The propolis indicates a whole series of resinous, gommeuses and balsamic substances, of viscous consistency, collected by the bees on certain parts of plants. The principal gasolines producing of the propolis are conifers (Barks pines, Sapin S, spruce S), and the buds several species of Aulne S, of Saule S, Bouleau X, Prunier, Frêne S, Chêne S and Orme S, Peuplier S (which seem to be the most important source) and of the Horse chestnut tree.
The worker transports this resin in the baskets of her back legs (in the same way that the Pollen). These balls are of a color going of the yellow-clearly to thebrown one. Those are not stored in the cells but used at once by build. These last modify them partly, by the contribution of their own secretions (wax and secretions salivary mainly) and apply it to the need. The hotter the place is, the more important the percentage of wax is (the propolis being viscous and sticking to the surrounding 20° and becoming hard and breakable with the cold or ageing). It is thus logical to find a propolis more concentrated on the level of the hole of take-off and on the head of the executives.
In the hive, the propolis (mixes some with the Beeswax) has multiple uses. It is a mortar which is used for filling of the cracks or interstices, with the sealing (vis-a-vis the moisture and with the development of the moulds), with the reinforcement of rays or defective parts of the hive and with protection of the colony by the reduction of the entry of the hive. It is an asepticizing varnish deposited in fine layer inside the cells before the laying of the Reine, or to smooth the interior walls of the Ruche. It is used also for momifier the intruding and dead animals (rats and mouse for example) too large to be evacuated by the bees thus avoiding their decomposition.
HarvestA colony produces between 100 and 300g propolis per annum. The work of harvest is thus often tiresome and the very delicate operations of purification.
For certain bee-keepers, the propolis is an embarrassment. Sometimes, some take the trouble to collect it during the cleaning of the executives. This propolis rough of scraping requires to be purified because it can contain wax, wood and pieces of insects. In certain bee-keepers amateurs who seldom open their hives, it can be rather old and degraded.
The propolis of scraping can also contain pieces of bees. This last element confers on the propolis scraping, an appreciation on the plan of its bio-apitherapic qualities. Indeed, used by the bees for this work of embalming, the propolis of scraping would have anti-bacterial qualities higher than the propolis of grid. The propolis of grid is primarily employed by the bee like construction material, and not like anti-bacterial protection, its effectiveness from this point of view, not having priority for the bee.
For a more profitable harvest, it is preferable to use grids with propolis made up of many interstices which the bee will seek to fill. This tool is placed on the head of the executives, often after harvest (the temperature will have dropped, the propolis will be concentrated out of wax, more abundant and new). It will then be enough to place this cold grid, the propolis becoming breakable, a torsion of the tool will release the small pieces.
The propolis collected in the hive is overall made up of: The propolis also contains many of other elements like organic acids, very many flavonoïdes, trace elements, many vitamins.
There exist various varieties of propolis. One of the most powerful propolis is the green propolis Brésil (States of the south of the country: Paraná, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina…). It is butinée by a “African” variety of bees known as (Apis Mellifera) on a plant quite specific to this area of the sphere called Baccharis dracunculifolia (or rosemary of the fields) of the kind Baccharis. This plant has a high percentage of Terpénoïde S, chemical agents with the action anti-inflammatory drug.
The propolis could be preserved eternally without being out-of-date, in rough form.
Ancient useThe propolis was used like product as embalming in ancient Egypt. To the 11th century, the propolis was recommended to heal the wounds of arrows.
2 - Varnished of Russia for wood very exposed or invaluable: Linseed oil 200 G - Beeswax 50 G - Propolis 100 G. To heat prudently to obtain a homogeneous mixture. After 15 days, the coating applies hot to wood. To let dry and polish.
Medicinal propertiesIn a rough state, Propolis can be chewed directly after taking away, but generally, one will take it in other forms. It will be naturally very clean before being useful in a preparation.
The rough propolis or in the form of dyeing-mother is a very powerful anti-infectious (Antifongique, Antiseptique, Antibiotique). It has moreover one to be able Anesthésique, healing and anti-inflammatory drug and increases the cellular metabolism.
Extracts artisanal from propolis
2 - The waxes being insoluble cold, another technique consists in plunging directly the product Propolis/Cire in alcohol (between 40° and 60°). After maceration and filtration, one also obtains a dyeing-mother.
This recovered extract contains Flavonoïde S (mainly represented) and compounds phenolic and aromatic various.
A commercial productThe propolis can be put on sale at the rough state or as a dyeing-mother by certain bee-keepers having the authorizations necessary. But it is generally marketed by pharmaceutical firms (human medicine or veterinary surgeon) or cosmetologic (soaps, shampoos, lipstick, lotions for the skin, toothpastes, sun lotion…). Its commercial use as varnish remains anecdotic.
- the propolis on ApiWiki
- ethnobotanic Guide of Phytotherapy, Gerard Ducerf, Promonature Editions, 2006
- '' the Rustica treaty of the bee-keeping '', collective work, ED. Rustica, September 2002
- : Category: Bee-keeping
Site of information on the marketing of the propolis
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