Pronunciation of French
Phonetic inventory of French
Standard French has 20 to 21 consonants and 11 to 16 vowels, according to the way of counting.
¹ In the current pronunciation, the phoneme is distinguished less and less from.
² The phoneme appeared relatively recently, with the loan of words of English origin. It is sometimes marked.
³ According to the speaker, [ʁ] can be replaced by [χ], [ʀ], [X], [ɣ], [R] or [ɾ]. This phenomenon is called allophonic variation.
4 , and are not to tell the truth consonants; these phonemes belong to the Approximating S (also called semivowels or semi-consonants).
¹ In the current pronunciation of certain regional varieties of French, tends to approach, and tends to approach.
² distinction between/ɛ/and/ɛ: /, as in the words putting and main is in the process of disappearance in France, but is maintained in Canada. In France the distinction relates only to the length, while in Canada a light difference in quality also exists.
Pronunciation of the graphèmes
- C is worth in front of E, I, there; elsewhere;
- G is worth in front of E, I, there; elsewhere;
- H does not decide in standard French, except in the Interjection S such as ha! (where he decides);
- S is generally worth between two vowels and elsewhere;
- Ti followed by another vowel and not at the beginning of word decides sometimes;
- in general, the D , S , T , X and Z final do not decide, except in the event of connection (in which case D and T decides and S , X and Z decides).
¹ if these letters are followed m, N, H or of a vowel, then N or the m decides instead of changing the sound of the preceding vowel
² if these vowels are followed of a pronounced vowel, it become approximating:
- ay : “to pay” /p ɛje/but “Country” /p ɛi/. One also finds /aj/ in “Fayot” /fajo/, “the Himalayas” /imalaja/ and “Mayonnaise” /maj ɔnɛz/
- I : “Sky” /sj ɛl/but “Life” /vi/, “Lash” /sil/, “GUI” /gi/
- or : “Yes” /wi/ but “Noodle” /nuj/, “End” /bu/, “Insane” /fu/
- OY : “royal” /rwajal/
- U : “Night” /n ɥi/but “Nuillé” /nyje/, “Was” /fy/, “drunk” /by/
- have is worth:
- /ɛ/ in general
- /ɛ/ in initial position, but also /e/ in “acute”, “to sharpen” and “switches”.
- /e/ at the end of the word (traditionally “to kiss” or but “kisses”.
- /ɛ/ when followed by a consonant at the end of the word: “easy”/ɛze/, “Made” /f ɛ/, “gave” /d ɔnɛ/
- /e/ , traditionally, in “know”, “go” and “knows”, but is current.
- /ə/ in certain cases: “Pheasant” /f əzɑ̃/, “making” /f əzɑ̃/, “let us make” /f əzɔ̃/, “maker” /f əzœʁ/, “feasible” /f əzabl/.
- /i ɲ/ elsewhere: “igneous” /i ɲe/, “Signe” /si ɲ/
- it is worth:
- /j/ after a vowel: “Garlic” /aj/, “Threshold” /s œj/
- /il/ elsewhere: “it” /il/, “Fil” /fil/
- ill is worth:
- /j/ after a vowel: “Ruail” /kaj/, “Noodle” /nuj/
- /ij/ elsewhere: “Ball” /bij/ ( /il/ exceptionally: “Thousand” /mil/ and “Ville” /vil/)
- œ without U is sometimes marked/œ/(but always in “eye”/œj/)
With the Quebec
- It and followed or or or becomes consonants affricate consonants. /te/ also, to a lesser extent.
the vowels /i/ /u/ /y/ are slackened or not, dépendemment following consonant and accent. These vowels followed by a consonant in the same syllable are generally slackened (some other accents make it possible to still more often slacken them):
- poutine decides, or sometimes, instead of.
- tuque decides instead of.
- pile decides instead of
- for , pure , worse remain such as they are (syllable finished by a R)
- chicken , puma , to crush remain such as they are (the following consonant is in another syllable)
there are long vowels which are allophones of the short vowels (except when a long vowel made a phoneme/ʀ/dumb). The long vowels can be marked like diphthongs in certain accents:
- to make decides or ** to be decides or ** fear decides or ** happy decides or ** passes decides or ** coast decides or
/ɔ̃/decides or according to the case.
much of/ɥ/decides, causing the separation of a syllable into two: current decides and not
certain accents replace par.
there are much more elisions of (which are optional):
- I you can decide or ** I think can decide or ** I eat can decide or ** etc
- According to the dialects, certain pairs of vowels are undifferentiated or interchangeable:
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