A professor is a person érudite, having a teaching competence generally acquired by the experiment and/or during a formation. The teacher is charged to transmit knowledge or methods of reasoning to others in a matter, field or school Discipline or within the framework of a more general training to one or more pupils, generally within the framework of an institution (school, university…), even of private lessons. In this last case, one also speaks about Précepteur, when the organization of the whole of the schooling of a pupil is dealt with by Enseignant employed on a purely private basis.
Levels of teaching
There exist several levels of teaching and for each one of these levels exists a type of professor.
Primary schools and secondary
; In the elementary school in France:
The teachers are professors there:
- certified when they were allowed with the contest of the CAPES or the CAPET,
- or aggregate when they were allowed with the contest of aggregation,
- or of the professors of vocational school (when they were allowed with the contest of CAPLP.
; The teachers substitutes in France:
There exist the titular professors on zone of replacement (TZR), who have for mission of replacing the professors absent and/or on leave. It are titular of a zone in which they will replace holders exerting for example only part-time. They are Fonctionnaire S certified or incorporated or professor of the schools.
- There exist still the professors Vacataire S who have, as for them, a Precarious status. The frees-lance have compensatory payments, but are paid only with one month of minimum delay (delay which can go up to 6 months). They can on the whole carry out only 200 hours during the same school year. As for the professors Contractual S, they are generally recruited time the one school year, but they have supplementary laws to those of the frees-lance, like paid vacations, and the accounting of their hours of teaching, which, put end to end enable them to pass the internal Competition S of teaching.
Higher education and research
- In the Universities:
- Professor (ordinary, extraordinary, visitor, associate, fee, highly skilled), part-time lecturer, lecturer, chief of work, assistant.
- Vice-chancellor (of the university), senior (of falculté).
- In the High Schools:
- Professor, part-time lecturer, chief of work, chief of research department, assisting Master, Master (principal) of hands-on training.
- Director-President (of the high school), director (of the department/category).
- with the Canada: The titles of university professor are integrated into the North-American university system . See the list of the titles of professor and those of the university degrees in Canada. These denominations are thus comparable in the others anglophone Pays.
- in France (University, preparatory classes at the universities, universities, BTS)…:
- for the universities, the universities and the IUT, which are components of the universities, the professor is titular or not of a Doctorat or a HDR. According to its statute, it can be titular and doctor (Professor of the universities, University lecturer, etc) or not titular and not necessarily doctor, but preparing a doctorate (ATER, Moniteur of higher education, Vacataire). It can be also a professor certified (PRCE) or incorporated secondary education (PRAG) affected in higher education.
- for the preparatory classes, the professor must be titular aggregation,
- for BTS, the professor, certified or incorporated, sign often also in the secondary.
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