Policy of Italy
The Politique of the Italy is characterized, since 1946 by a Démocratie parliamentary seemingly rather unstable, even if the Aphorisme celebrates Guépard of Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa ( all must change so that nothing changes ) undoubtedly applies better to the Italian political life.
After years of continuous domination of the Christian Democrat and allies of center-left, contrasted by the existence of a Italian Communist party (NCV) extremely and relatively moderate, the system seemed to crumble in the Nineties, following the business Mani pulite (clean Hands). At the time of a referendum promoted by Mario Segni and the Italian Radical party in 1993, the Way of voting which privileged the Proportionnelle is deeply modified by a law, inapplicable in the facts, the Mattarellum (word invented by Giovanni Sartori), a mixed poll (majority to 75%).
The principal parties implosent or change name and Silvio Berlusconi, a business man whose activities had profited from the corrupted government of Bettino Craxi (PSI) launches in policy (it will call this decision, the descent ) and founds little before the elections of 1994, the movement Forza Italia. He gains the elections but must leave the government following the defection of some allied. After the fall of Berlusconi there is an institutional government, formed by characters of the economic life and guided by Lamberto Dini, civil servant of the Bank of Italy.
In 1996 the left around Romano Prodi gains the elections. It will insert Italy in the Euro, thanks to the reduction of the national debt but also by increasing the taxes. But the communist support of Refondation with the coalition of Olivier finishes in 1998, and thanks to the new formation Communist party Massimo d' Alema form two governments. With final of the legislature there is another left government, guided by the former president of the Amato council.
Silvio Berlusconi gains the elections of May 2001 against Francesco Rutelli. Its government passes through temporary crises, with the departure of some important ministers (Foreign affairs, Intérieur, Economie) but it manages to remain with the capacity until the terminus of the legislature. The government, with the approach of the elections of 2006, that everyone feels lost, especially after the failure without precedent with the regional elections of April 4th, 2005 (six lost areas, only the Lombardy and the Venezia remain with the hands of the center-right) modifies the way of voting, returning to the Représentation proportional integral with a price of majority (340 seats with the House of Commons) to guarantee stability. It also makes vote in a final way the major constitutional reform of the Republic (more than 50 articles modified), commonly called the devolution because it founds a Federal state, in conformity with the wishes of the Ligue of North. But this reform will never enter into force (after a referendum of confirmation in June 2006 which is a failure for the Maison of Freedoms and the Ligue of North).
Current constitutional system
The Italian constitution, coming into effect on January 1st 1948 established the Republic, founded on work (Article 1st).
It rests on a parliamentary Régime bicameral:
- a House of Commons (Camera dei Deputati) of 630 deputies;
- a Senate (Senato della Repubblica) of 315 senators (as well as the former presidents of the Republic and 5 senators with life, at most, named by the Head of the State).
The executive consists of a government chaired by a President of the Council, primus inter pares .
The Head of the State is a President of the Republic to the relatively limited capacities, elected for seven years by the joined together rooms (to which delegates are added representing the areas).
- List of the Italian legislatures
- Italian Political parties
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