Policy of Haiti
Of 1804, date on which Haiti reaches independence after the revolution, with 1986 the country almost knew any kind of political regime without never managing to set up a democratic system. The March 29th 1987 by way chief clerk a constitution was approved. Ratified by the Parliament resulting from the elections of the January 17th 1988, it replaced that of 1963 thus installation by the former dictator François Duvalier. The executive power is ensured by the president of the Republic and the government directed by the Prime Minister.
The legislative power is represented by a bicameral National Assembly made up of the House of Commons and the Senate. to see the constitution
In spite of this constitution, continuous Haiti to suffer from a chronic political instability, thus, the country knew 14 Heads of State different since approval from this constitution.
Various political regimes
Heads of State of Haiti
List of the Heads of State of Haiti
Chronology of the recent political events
2004the political crisis and social
Haiti knows since at the beginning of February aggravation of the tensions between opponents and in favor of the president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The confrontations made at least 70 died and several hundreds of casualties.
- , demonstration with Port-au-Prince claiming the resignation of the president Aristide.
- February 5th, takeover of Gonaïves by a group of insurrectionists.
- February 7th, in the capital, demonstration of support with president Aristide of several tens of thousands of people.
- February 10th, the political opposition and the “civil society” gathered within the democratic platform take their distances with respect to the armed insurrection.
- February 16th, with the support of paramilitaries of the ex-dictator Raoul Cédras, the insurrectionists seize the town of Hinche with center-is country.
- February 17th, the French Foreign Minister, Dominique de Villepin, invites the international community to consider the sending of a force of international peace (proposal refused by the the United States).
- February 18th, the insurrectionists obtain a commander-in-chief Guy Philippe, former police superintendent.
- February 20th, during a manifestation of the opposition to Port-au-Prince, journalists are wounded by partisans armed with president Aristide.
- February 21st, an international plan of payment of the crisis is accepted by president Aristide, but the opposition maintains its requirement of the resignation of the president.
- February 22nd, the insurrectionists seize Cape-Haitian, the second city of the country.
- February 23rd, the departure of president Aristide seems to be specified.
- February 29th, after two days of tensions and plundering in the port area of Port-au-Prince, under the international pressure, in particular of the France and the the United States, president Aristide gives his resignation and leaves the country. Navy American, and gendarmes French parachutists are sent. The president of the Court of appeal Boniface Alexandre takes over temporarily the duties. The president of the the United States request a resolution of UNO for the sending of an international force to guarantee peace and safety in Haiti.
- January 1st: The president of the Republic by interim Boniface Alexandre lance a call to the former president Jean Bertrand Aristide so that this one requires of its partisans to give up violence.
- February 10th: Seven died and a hundred wounded with Port-au-Prince at the time of the three fatty days of the Carnival, according to the assessment drawn up by the national police force of Haiti.
- February 19th: Armed individuals launch an attack against the national penitentiary, the principal prison of the country. Assessment: 1 died, 3 wounded and more than 400 escaped prisoners.
- February 25th: New attack of gangsters armed against the Village with God, located at the south of Port-au-Prince. Assessment: at least 7 dead.
- March 11th: The transfer of the former Prime Minister of Aristide, Yvon Neptune (of the national Penitentiary) towards the hospital of the Argentinian quota of the Mission of the United Nations for stabilization in Haiti (MINUSTAH) raises the dissatisfaction with the close relations of the victims of the massacre of the Sawmill, with Saint-Marc (96 km in the north of the capital) and of the Haitian organizations of Human rights.
- March 21st: MINUSTAH leads two operations to Small-Goâve (68 km in the south of Port-au-Prince) and Red Ground (more than 40 km in the North-East of the capital). Assessment: 2 soldiers of the killed MINUSTAH, 2 Haitian former servicemen killed and 12 wounded people.
- March 28th: Recrudescence of the insecurity in Port-au-Prince. 2 police officers and a driver of the national Harbor authority (APN) are assassinated, in full day, with Delmas 33, north-eastern suburbs of Port-au-Prince.
- 9 - April 10th: Two frightening gang leaders, Ravix Remissainthe and Rene Jean Anthony as several the their trustworthy ones are killed at the time of two operations led to Delmas by the Haitian police force.
- May 5th: Hardening of the penal legislation to slow down kidnapping. According to a decision adopted in the Council of Ministers, the authors of abductions and their accomplices will bail out from now on forced labors with perpetuity.
- May 10th: the Court of appeal cancels the judgment with the forced labors with perpetuity of 14 former servicemen, of which the former paramilitary rebel and Louis Jodel Chamblain and the former captain Jackson Joanis, implied in the massacre of Raboteau in April 1994.
- May 31st: Set fire to with the one of the government contracts of the capital called Tête Ox by armed individuals. Assessment: 7 dead and of the estimated material losses, by the Town hall of Port-au-Prince, to million dollars.
2006Election of Rene Préval
: The International organization of the Francophonie (OIF) announces that a mission of observation of the Francophonie will attend the elections presidential and members of Parliament in Haiti on February 7th.
- February 2nd: According to the special representative of the general secretary of UNO in Haiti, Juan Gabriel Valdés, the forces of MINUSTAH received instructions to answer “legitimately” any attempt aiming at disturbing the elections presidential and legislative.
- February 3rd: The president by interim of Haiti, Boniface Alexandre, invites the Haitians “to approach with courage and determination” the elections presidential and members of Parliament envisaged Tuesday, February 7 whereas a threat of violences planes on the poll framed by UNO.
- February 4th: The favorite candidate with the presidential election in Haiti, Rene Préval, cancels his last gathering envisaged with Port-au-Prince due to threats.
- February 5th: The electoral campaign is completed in Haiti, whereas the patrols and check-points in Port-au-Prince are reinforced by the Blue helmets of the MINUSTAH and the Haitian police force.
- February 6th: The General secretary of the UNO, Kofi Annan, invites all the Haitians to take part peacefully in the elections presidential and members of Parliament, like “all the parts to respect the result of the elections and the future government to show its engagement in favor of the reconciliation and the gathering”.
- February 7th: Some 3,5 million Haitians goes to the ballot boxes to elect a new president and a new Parliament, at the time of the first elections organized in this country since the fall in 2004 of the former president Jean Bertrand Aristide.
- February 8th:
- the Haitians took part in great number in the elections to choose their new president. The results of the elections should be known by Friday, February 10. If none the candidates collects 50% of the voices, a second turn is envisaged mid-March.
- the shortly after the elections in Haiti, the collective “Kolektif Solidarite Idantite ak Libete” (KSL) publishes a proclamation entitled “ Nan inite istorik all pèp, year nou repran chemen liberasyon louse nou konstwi nasyon year ” (the historical unit of the people will enable us to take again the way of the release to build us a nation) in which it develops its point of view on the theoretical question and the practical solution of (Re) the foundation of the Haitian nation and recommends “the historical unit of the people” as solution. This reveals that the domination Coloniale and neo-colonial would be the fundamental cause of the social problems of the island.
- February 9th: The former president Rene Préval arrives at the head of the presidential election to Haiti in several voting centres of Port-au-Prince, according to partial results made public.
- March 2nd: The Spain proposes with UNO to accommodate an International Conference of givers for the rebuilding of Haiti. At the time of a meeting with the special representative of the General secretary of UNO and chief of MINUSTAH, the Chile in Juan Gabriel Valdés, the Spanish Minister for the Foreign affairs, Miguel Angel Moratinos, refuses however to engage on a prolongation of Spanish engagement in the MINUSTAH.
- March 3rd: The MINUSTAH announces the carryforward of several weeks of the second turn of the legislative elections envisaged the March 19th “for material reasons” of impression of ballot papers.
- March 7th: The Haitian presidency wishes to renegotiate an agreement with UNO signed by the chief of the provisional government, Gerard Latortue, envisaging control, the reorganization and the reform of the Haitian police force (PNH) in collaboration with the MINUSTAH.
- March 9th: According to the president of the Provisional electoral counsel (STOCK), max Mathurin, the second turn of the parliamentary elections in Haiti, deferred because of engineering problems, should be held the April 23rd.
- March 10th: The withdrawal of the 200 Spanish Blue helmets of MINUSTAH will begin towards the March 20th and will be completed the April 5th. According to the MINUSTAH, the Blue helmets Spanish “will be replaced by soldiers coming from Uruguay”.
- March 11th: The new Haitian president, Rene Préval, states himself in favor of an constitutional amendment aiming at definitively abolishing the army, dissolved in 1994. According to Mr. Préval, “One needs a body within the police force which can intervene in cases of catastrophes, which can intervene in the monitoring of the customs and the borders, whereas the police force would be more one agent auxiliary of justice”.
- March 14th: The new Haitian president, Rene Préval, completes a round in Latin America. At the time of a meeting with Buenos Aires with the Argentinian president, Nestor Kirchner, Mr. Préval claims the increase and the maintenance of MINUSTAH in Haiti.
February 15th: the United Nations prolong the mission of the blue helmets of the 8 months MINUSTAH.
- List of the Heads of State of Haiti
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