The poker is a family of card decks including/understanding many formulas and alternatives. It is generally practiced with several players with a play fifty-two charts and tokens.
The sequences of play alternate distribution of charts and turns of bidding. The goal of the play is to obtain the best combination of five charts, the hand , in order to gain the whole of the settings, the pot . The players overbid according to the force of their hand (of which whole or part is hidden) and of their hope to improve it, or give up the turn.
There are very many formulas of plays being attached to the poker. Historically, the term “poker” especially indicated the Poker closed (in English), which lends itself to the evenings private play well (and itself has of many sub-variants). The most frequent alternative in official tournaments or in gambling is today the Texas Hold' EM.
The joint base of these formulas includes the system of bidding in several turns, the principle of cutting down its play if there is equality of the settings, the types of hands and their hierarchy. The formulas of play are characterized by the manner of distributing the charts and of organizing the turns of bidding, and the fact that certain charts can be exposed, to even be common to all the hands.
Historical originThe historical origin of the poker is not clear, and is prone to debate. It goes back in any case to several centuries.
The play points out the Iranian play ace nas . It would have been imported into Europe at the time of the crusades, and would have been at the origin of several similar plays. It is generally considered that it is related with the French play of the brelan , or its version of the primero , which was played at origin in Italy and Spain towards the end of the 15th century. In the same way, English play named brag drift obviously of the brelan , and one finds there the concept of bluff (which appears to tell the truth in other plays of this time). One can suppose that in one way or another, all these plays contributed at the origin of the poker.
The name of the play would come itself from German pochen (to strike), card deck which was applied to the 17th century in Germany, and appears to be the true ancestor of the poker, as well by its rules very close to the current poker as by its tactics of play. A French play of similar name, the Poque , was already practiced at time of Louis XI, but with rather different rules. The legend of the play attaches its English name to the verb to poke , to push or to poke (which gave has poker , a poker), in the direction of “play which encourages/pushes with the bluff”.
In any case, it is in the United States that the play truly took its rise in its modern version. The first historical testimony on the poker with the the United States is that of the English actor Joseph Crowell, who tells a form of this play that he saw practicing in 1829 with the New-Orleans, where four players playing with a set of twenty charts bet on that of them which had the strongest hand. In 1843, Jonathan H. Green describes in its literary work the expansion of the card decks on the boats which sailed on the the Mississippi. From there, it was spread in the American west at the time of the Gold rush of 1848, and became an integral part of the myth related to the Conquête of the West. It is shortly after this time which the use of the play with 52 charts spread, and which the color was allowed like hand.
Very many alternatives emerged during the American American Civil War (1861-1865). It is at that time that are stabilized the base forms of the Poker closed ( Draw ), and of the Stud to five charts. The other alternatives emerged thereafter.
The play was reimported in Europe in its modern form during second half of the 19th century, in its alternative of the closed Poker (qualified “French poker” at the beginning of the 20th century). It was largely widespread in all the countries of the world, sometimes brought in the luggage of the American soldiers.
Part of closed Poker
Installation of the partThe closed poker - traditional formula for private evening of poker can be played between three and eight players. Not to involve too important distortions on the probabilities of strong hands, and to preserve sufficiently animated parts, the number of charts used varies normally according to the number of players: with 32 charts for four players, and 40 per five, one will increase the heel of four charts per player, until a complete set of 52 charts for eight players. But these figures are indicative, and can be adjusted, essence being that there are sufficient charts for all.
At the beginning, the places of the players are drawn randomly.
; Carpet and Cellars The carpet of a player feeds by cellars, the system of cellars making it possible to balance the chances between the richer players and the more poor:
- the cellar is the expressed value of tokens (typically 100 to 200) that a player can supply initially, or restock between two distributions. The value of a cellar is identical for all the players.
- the carpet is the total of the tokens which a player has in front of him and can miser. A player can initially put a cellar on the carpet, or more if the players are of agreement.
In the system of “free cellar”, the constraint is lower: the number of cellar of a restocking is not limited, a player can recaver as much as it wants to be it. It is possible to remove very forced on the cellar, the players directly being then limited by their personal fortune.
; Donor: The donor can be permanent and not take share with the part, or be one of the players.
If the donor is a player, that which draws the strongest chart is the first donor, and each one will give in his turn.
With the closed poker, the charts are mixed only with the beginning of the part, or when a new play was brought into service. The play is then never rebattu, to enable him “to be done”, but is only cut. On the other hand, in the alternatives of casino or tournament, where the “blows” are more independent, the charts are mixed between each blow.
Blind or PotThere exist two great alternatives of the closed poker, the part “with the pot” or “the blind”. In both cases, whole or part of the players must put a setting forced on the carpet, independently of its play: it is the initial stake of the part.
In the left to the pot , most frequent, each player puts at the pot a setting fixed in advance, identical for all. This amount, fixed at the beginning of part, is typically from one to three tokens.
In the left to the blind (of English blind , with the blind man, but this word decides as in “shielding”), the pot is entirely consisted the first player on the left of the donor: the setting of the blindor is at the same time the initial pot, and an opening (there is not thus “word” in the parts with the blind). The blindor will speak in last at the time of the two card tricks.
The advantage of that which speaks in the last is that it with the best vision of the play. It can start again all the settings of its adversaries, and knows which opened or not. If everyone passes before him, convention is generally to play the pot, with like minimal setting the amount of the blind.
The parts with the blind admit sometimes the possibility of the surblind : The player following the blindor, instead of opening, double the initial blind without looking at his charts and thus repurchases the privilege of speaking in the last. Just as the blind is an opening to the blind man, the surblind is a revival with the blind man, who gives to the surblindor the privilege of the blindor (to hold at the same time the opening and the capacity of revival). In the same way, certain conventional alternatives admit the possibility for each player of doubling the blind of its adversary of right-hand side (overblind, suroverblind,…), always without looking at the play.
In certain conventions for the parts with the pot, the first player after the donor can buy the pot : he doubles his amount before looking at his charts, and buys in the same way the privilege of speaking in the last in two biddings about the blow.
He is frequent, in the private parts of closed poker, periodically to alternate some turns of “blind” in the parts with the “pot”, or conversely, so as to break the monotony of give by a more entertaining turn.
Course of a “blow” of closed pokerThe donor distributes the charts one by one, in theory in the direction of the needles of a watch. It starts with its neighbor of left, and is useful in the last. When each player received five charts, all can collect them and take note of it. The biddings start then.
; Unfolding of a turn of bidding The principle of the biddings is simple: To remain in the blow, all the players must have put on the whole the same value of bidding (except case of the “carpet”, discussed further), but each one can start again on the biddings of its adversaries. The biddings are completed as soon as everyone put the same bidding (nobody started again), or that all except one lay down.
Each player must keep the account of what it already put, and of what it remains to him with miser to reach the level of the current bidding, according to the history of the biddings. These accounts must be carefully supervised, in particular at the time of the higher bids, the amount of the sums to be added by each player “to follow” can result from a very complex history.
In the parts with the pot, the biddings are opened by the first player on the left donor. At the time of a turn of bidding, in the parts with the pot, each player still concerned can, in its turn, to choose like option before the opening:
- Word ( check ): if no bidding were still made in the turn, the player can remain concerned by calling on the following player, without anything miser. NB: before the opening, “passes it” does not exist; a player who “passes” (by abuse language) indicates in fact that he plays “word”.
- Ouvrir , if it is the first to make a setting. He announces his setting while saying “I open of such an amount of”, and places the setting in the center of the carpet. This setting is called the opening.
These biddings do not exist in the parts with the blind, since in this case, the blindor (while preserving the privilege of speaking or starting again in the last) is regarded as the opener, the opening being rising blind.
Once a player opened, the options are:
- to lie down or to pass (in English, fold ): the player leaves his charts in the middle of the table (nonvisible) and does not play any more until gives following. NB: it is possible to lie down only after the opening. After the opening, a player can only miser with height of the bidding, or to lie down; a player who says word (by abuse language) indicates in fact that it lies down.
- To follow or to see ( cal or see ): the player supplements his setting with his tokens, so as to put in the pot (on the whole) a sum equal to the closing bid. The player will rather say “to follow” to the first turn of bidding, and “to see” with the second. NB: If its carpet is lower than the sum necessary to reach the closing bid, there can remain concerned in condition of miser the totality of the tokens which remain to him: it is said whereas it made carpet (see further).
- To start again ( raise ): the player in position “to follow” can increase the biddings, and miser in the pot (on the whole of what it put) a sum higher than the closing bid. A revival after a first revival is a on-revival . It is not possible to start again on the amount of its own bidding: if all the players in the blow followed, the turn of bidding is finished.
- Carpet ( Alin ): the player who does not have enough any more of tokens to follow put totality of what remains to him. That enables him to take part in the bidding in progress without having with miser further, whatever the revivals, as if it decided “to follow” each time. If it loses, it is eliminated and loses its carpet. If it gains, it gains the settings of the other players only to height of his carpet, the remainder of the biddings being gained by the player having the second best hand (and so on, in the event of multiple “carpets”). A player can also make carpet during a revival or a on-revival.
The turn of bidding is finished when all the players either put the same amount, or withdrew themselves from the blow.
Note: in theory, one plays only with what is on the table. It is not possible to buy additional tokens during a bidding.
; Charts The donor still asks for each player in the blow (while starting on its left) the number of charts which it wishes to exchange. Each player in turn announces the number of charts that it draws aside , by rejecting them (face on the table), before receiving as many news of it. The donor gathers all the isolated charts.
A player who does not exchange any chart announces “been useful”, if not “a chart”, or “two charts”, sometimes “three charts”.
It is possible to exchange four charts, but only one person per turn has it must do it: if a player asked for four charts, it is not possible any more to do it. In this case, the donor gives three charts, and will give the fourth only after everyone was been useful (if the applicant of four charts is the last with being been useful, the donor gives him three charts, the following one “flames” by putting it under the package, and distributes the last). With the closed poker, the exchange of more than three charts has direction only for the parts with the “blind”, when a player put without to have looked at his play and discovers a completely empty hand. In certain alternatives of poker in room, it can be authorized to change all the hand.
; Second round of bidding The second round is held according to the same rules as the first, only being able to raise the players who remained in the blow with the first turn.
; End of the blow The part finishes when:
- he remains nothing any more but one player concerned. He then gains the pot without very having to show his play;
- it has there no more turn of setting. One passes then to the demolition ( showdown ), phase where the hands of the players still in string are compared to determine the holder of best. In the event of equality, the pot is divided equitably between gaining.
Hands with the pokerIn the traditional play (without joker nor added charts) the possible hands , or combinations, of weakest with strongest are:
- No combination or pulling,
- current Jeux which can be improved: Pair < Double pair < Brelan,
- strong Plays: Fifth < Color < Full Hand,
- Square < Fifth Flush (play “five stars”, practically unbeatable).
Fifth flushThe fifth flush ( straight flush ) is made of five charts whose rows are followed and whose colors are identical. It is more the possible upper hand with the Poker. It is at the same time a fifth and a color, practically unbeatable. It can thus be beaten only by another fifth flush of higher row. If two fifths flush are in competition, strongest is that whose row is highest. A fifth flush of entry gives a quasi-certainty to gain the part: 99,98% to eight players/52 charts, 99,94% to four players/32 charts.
The fifth flush is an extremely rare play, about “for ten thousand”: 0,036% to 32 charts, 0,006% to 52 charts. It is been useful in a case on five (21 to 22%), and results from one pulling to the fifth flush in the other cases.
When a fifth flush is been used as entry, it cannot be improved.
Just as a normal fifth, a fifth flush can be “white”, if this convention is accepted with the table (see “fifth”).
The fifth flush known as “royal” ( royal flush ), or sometimes “imperial”, is a fifth flush with the Ace: There does not exist play which can beat it.
SquareThe square ( furnace off has kind ) is formed by the four charts of the same row, accompanied by an unspecified chart. It is a major combination, practically unbeatable. The strongest square is that of the highest row.
The square appears with a frequency lower than 1%: 0,96% to 32 charts, 0,23% to 52 charts. It is obtained directly with pulling only in 10% of the cases, and comes if not from the improvement of a pair (50% of the cases) or of a brelan (40%).
However, these improvements with pulling suppose that the pairs and brelans are not made up, i.e. the player asks indeed for three charts if it has a pair and two if it has a brelan. If the player systematically chooses on the contrary to shoulder his pair (by asking two charts) or his brelan (a chart), its probability of having a square decreases by half: 0,46% to 32 charts and 0,11% to 52 charts, it are been useful once on four, come from a brelan in 40% of the cases, or from a pair in 15% of the cases.
When a square is been useful, it cannot of course be improved, but it is generally useful to ask a chart to make accept in a little game or a pulling.
The been useful square is a play practically gaining, to hundred against one: 98,97% (32 charts) with 99,50% (52 charts) of hope of profit. The hope of profit to the second round is practically identical.
then the kicker will define which carries it in the event of square on the floop
Full hand or FullThe full hand ( full house ) is made of a brelan and a pair. The full hand strongest is that which has the brelan more raised (there cannot be two full hands of the same row).
It appears with a frequency of a few percent, passing from 4,5% per 32 charts with 1,1% per 52 charts. It is directly obtained by pulling only once on seven (13%), and results if not from the improvement of a double pair (40% of the cases), of a simple pair (in 35% of the cases), or of a brelan been used (11%) for condition of not making up them. Its frequency does not vary appreciably when the pairs and the brelans are made up. The many manners of obtaining a full hand starting from other combinations make that it is finally more frequently present at the second turn than the fifth, although the fifth is easier to obtain by direct pulling.
The hope of profit of a full hand (been used or for the second round) is very important: 90% (32 charts) with 96% (52 charts), it are in the zone “against ten” with “against twenty”. It is thus a play very strong, but not completely unbeatable, whose holder must remain careful.
ColorThe color ( flush ) is made of five identical charts of color (which are not followed, if not it is about a fifth flush). The highest color is that which contains the chart of row most extremely, and in the event of equality, one compares the following rows. Two colors ( flush ) are thus decided between according to the same principle as the “high chart”.
The color is a rather strong play, giving an important probability of profit (been used or for the second turn): 86% (32 charts) with 90% (52 charts), it is a play a little lower than “against ten”.
Fifth or ContinuationThe fifth ( straight ) is made of five charts of consecutive rows (and of color not all identical, if not it is about a fifth flush). In the case of two fifths, it is the height of the fifth which allows decides between it. If the fifth 5 4 3 2 Aces is accepted (“white” fifth), it is weakest of the fifths.
If all pullings with the fifth were tried, the fifth would be twice more frequent: 9,2% to 32 charts, 1,6% to 52, figure obtained once on five directly, once on two by simple pulling, and bilateral pulling in 30% of the cases. However, simple pulling reaches the fifth only once on ten, which on average is insufficient to remain in the blow.
If simple pullings are not tried, with the second round, the fifth becomes a little less frequent than the full hand: 4,1% per 32 charts, and 0,8% per 52 charts. The fifth is then been useful once on two.
; “White” fifth or “coils” Although the Ace is the strongest chart, it can sometimes be used to begin or finish a fifth.
- At the beginning, with As/Deux/Trois/Quatre/Cinq to form the weakest fifth called “white fifth” or “wheel”.
- At the end, with Ten/Servant/Lady/Roi/As to form the strongest fifth called “to the Ace”.
- All the players do not accept this rule and that some recognize with the Ace only its value of chart higher than the King. Before playing, it is thus advisable to ask whether the white fifths are accepted with the table.
- This convention is natural only with 52 charts. If the part is played with a truncated shoe (32 charts, for example), the Ace is then by convention the chart lower than smallest reserve (it is worth “Ace” or “six” in a set of 32 charts).
- a fifth flush can be “white” according to same conventions.
The fifth is the last of the “been useful” strong plays, which cannot be improved. Its hope of profit (been useful or not) is of 80% (32) to 84% (52), with against five. Although forming a strong play, a fifth thus remains vulnerable, which can encourage its holder to start again the biddings to draw aside the competition of the intermediate plays, which can improve.
BrelanThe brelan ( three off has kind ) is formed by three of the same charts row, the two others being of unspecified row (if not, it is of a square or a full hand). The strongest brelan is that of the highest row.
The brelan is a relatively frequent figure, 6,6% to 52 charts (once on twenty) and 14% to 32 charts (once on seven): a brelan will be (in theory) present at table once all the three turns. It is been useful in 30% of the cases, and results from the improvement of a pair the remainder of time.
A been useful brelan gives a hope of profit of 70% (32) to 74% (52), this probability does not drop that of one pourcent if the brelan is made up (what makes an excellent option of it).
The brelan been used as entry can be improved, by requiring two charts or simply one (brelan made up or shouldered). It improves in 10 (52c) at 20% (32c) of the cases to form a full hand or a square.
With the second round, the hope of profit of a brelan is a little weaker: 64% (32) to 71% (52), which reflects the rise of the other hands which could improve.
Double pairThe double pair ( two even ) is made by two pairs (different rows, if not it is about a square) and of another unspecified chart (of row different from the two precedents, if not it is about a full hand). The double strongest pair is that which with the strongest pair of the highest row, and in the event of equality of highest, that which with the second pair of the highest row. If not, the fifth chart, called the kicker , makes the difference.
Its probability of appearance is about the percent, and decreases with the heel (contrary to the other figures), passing from 0,58% per 32 charts with 1,01% per 52 charts. The color is been useful once on five, and results from the improvement of a pulling in the other cases. The double pair is obtained with a frequency of 9,7% (for 52 charts) with 18,1% (with 32 charts). It is thus a rather frequent figure, half more than the brelan. It is been useful in about 50% of the cases, and results from the improvement of a simple pair if not.
A double been useful pair gives an appreciable hope of profit, of 45% (32) to 48% (52), largely conditioned by its improvement or not with the full hand with the second round. A double pair been used as entry can improve only by requiring a chart. The hand improves only in 10% (with 52 charts) at 15% (32 charts) of the cases, to obtain a full hand. With the second round, a simple double pair has more reduced hope of profit, of 37% (32) to 44% (52).
Simple pairThe pair ( even ) is formed by two of the same charts row, the three others being unspecified. The strongest pair is that of row more raised, and in the event of equality, the strongest hand is that which comprises the isolated chart highest.
A simple pair is obtained with a frequency varying of 36% (for 52 charts) with 54% (for 32 charts). It is generally been useful, but with the second round, it comes from an attempt at improvement of a pulling in 20 to 40% of the cases.
A been useful pair gives only one rather weak chance to gain: about against four or five on average, which justifies to enter the blow only with one sufficiently strong pair. A pair been used as entry can be improved by drawing aside three charts, or while shouldering (to make accept a brelan been used as entry). Without improvement, a simple pair is a very weak play with the second round, which has a hope of profit only about 9%.
The high chart ( high card ) is an absence of figure. It is a hand without characteristic, whose value is simply that of the high cards.
A “high chart” practically does not have a value. This type of hand typically is met when somebody tried a pulling without success, and continued with the bluff until being thorough with “to see”.
Two hands “chart high” are decided between according to the best chart present. If that is not enough, one takes account of the heights of the second best charts, and so on to the fifth chart.
A “high chart” with the opening gives only one hope of tiny profit: from 7% (52) to 15% (32).
Comparison of the handsWith the poker, the colors (spade, clover, square, heart) are of identical force. If two hands are characterized only by their color, they are thus of the same force. If not, one or the other of the charts being of different force, the first difference makes it possible to compare the hands.
The charts are, by increasing force: Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Last nines, Ten, Servant, Lady, King, Ace. But it should be noted that these values are arbitrary. It is indeed as difficult to obtain Have as one Two.
When two pairs, two brelans or two squares clash, it is that or that of the highest value which carries it. In the event of equality, decides between it is done on the principle of “high chart” applied to the remaining charts.
- In the case of two full hands ( full house ), decides between it is done on the height of the brelan, then pair the optimal frequency of the bluff is half of the frequency of the alleged hand: if a bluff claims to have made a success of a pulling (probability a priori of 15%), one needs bluffer in 7,5% of the cases, and to pass in the 77,5% of remaining cases (what means that one can bluffer on about a tenth of the losing hands).
Bidding of the first turnBy comparing the table of the hands been useful and that of the distributions after board swappings, one sees that the qualified plays of “forts” to the opening (pulling and double even) are not it necessarily any more with the second round.
A “strong” play with the opening is thus never but one good departure, justifying to remain in the blow to even supply the carpet. It is only seldom a sufficient play to claim to be gaining of outset, and an excessive revival is not justified.
Even a very strong play like the fifth or the been useful color can be made catch up with a considerable probability by a good pulling, to be even made double by the appearance of a full hand. For such plays, it can on the contrary be interesting to start again firmly with the first turn, as much as possible to limit the number of hands likely to improve with the second.
Alternatives of the PokerThe poker presents very many alternatives.
families of pokerThere exist 3 big families of alternatives of the poker.
Hold' EMIn these alternatives, part of the charts common and is thus opened, - shown -, Flop, turning ( turn ), and river ( to rivet ); and another privative and is closed, - hidden -, Pocket cards.
- the Texas hold' EM, Hold' EM, or Vegas
- the Double Hold' EM, or Double Failure Hold' EM
- the Omaha
- the Aviation
- the Courchevel
- the Irish
- the Pineapple, or Crazy Pineapple
StudFor these alternatives, all the charts are privative, but a part is opened, another is closed
- the Stud with five charts, Stud 5, or Kid
- the Stud with seven charts, Stud 7, or Seven Stud
- the Nullot
- the Razz, or Stud 7 low
- the Caribbean Poker
the closed PokerThe whole of the charts privative and is closed
- the Poker closed, or Draw
- the Nullot closed
- the Deuce to 7, or Kansas City Lowball
- the Ace to 5, or California Lowball
the poker of AceThe name comes from English poker-dice (poker with dice) transformed phonetically into poker of ace. The Poker of ace is a cousin distant from this family of play, which is played with dice, and without turns of bidding. The hierarchy of the hands remains however that of the traditional poker, which in fact a good introduction to the play and the improvement of the hand.
There exist special dice to play poker of Ace, but five ordinary dice make the deal as well.
the lying PokerWith the lying Poker, it has only one hand there that the players receive in turn, and try to improve it compared to what announced the preceding player.
The player who receives the hand can exchange the charts which he wants, then must announce a force of hand higher than that which was announced by the preceding player.
- If the following player accepts the advertisement, it must in its turn try to improve the hand under the same conditions.
- If it does not accept the advertisement (and the advertiser of “liar treats”), the play is spread out; advertiser and denoncor gain or lose according to the real hand.
Heights of playThe height of play defines which hand is gaining, strongest or weakest.
- High , or “ Hi ”
- Low , or “ Lo ”
- High-Low , “ Hi-Lo ”, of which the most frequent alternative includes the rule 8 gold Better , or 8/B
Kill or Half-KillIt is an option of play which makes it possible to give pepper to the play. When a player gains a pot without division (the scoop is needed then), then it receives the button “Kill”. If this same player with the following turn remakes a scoop it becomes the killer, if it does not make a scoop it loses the button “Kill”. A killer owes miser at least 2 times the gross Blind (put departure) even if it is of small or of gross Blind. The play continues then as if the Blinds were doubled. This obligation falls as soon as the killer gains the pot. In certain rules, on the one hand, to become killer it is necessary to gain 2 times of continuation the pot and that its amount is higher than a given number of times the gross Blind. In addition, it happens that the killer has the right to speak in the last with the first turn of bidding. One speaks about Half-Kill when one does not double the multiple blind but only one it by 1,5.
LimitsFor each one of these alternatives, one can control the pot
LimitThe settings are limited for each turns of bidding by an amount fixed in advance. There are in fact 2 limits:
- in Texas Hold' EM Limit 5-10, or in Omaha 5-10, each setting must be 5 before failure and on the failure , and 10 on the turn and the to rivet . The revivals must be 5 for the two first turns of bidding and 10 for the two last.
- in Stud Limit 5-10, the settings and revivals must be 5 on 3rd and 4th avenue (or street) and 10 on 5th, 6th and 7th avenue (or street).
Pot LimitThe settings are limited by the pot. With each turn of bidding the revivals are limited by the amount of the pot. After having equalized the setting, a player can start again to the maximum of the amount of the pot.
No LimitThe settings are not limited. No Limit can thus lead a player to make carpet (all in).
Practical of the poker
In the world, most known are Doyle Brunson, Johnny Chan, Daniel Negreanu, Phil Hellmuth Jr, Phil Ivey, Mike Matusow, Gus Hansen, Sam Farrah, Erik Seidel, Joe Hachem, Hassan Habib, Rob Hollink, Quentin “Potstealer” Ewans, Tuan It, Paul Maxfield, and well of others. They have a well soaked personality and their parts are sometimes laughing to look in spite of the stakes. But most of the time, their confrontations are transformed into true lessons of poker from the stakes, the manner of playing and of course the masterly blows of bluff.
The singer Patrick Bruel and Claude Cohen are two of the three players French to have gained a title at the time of the championships of the world of poker WSOP. Michel Abécassis, David Benyamine and the very tested Bruno Fitoussi, Jan Boubli, Fabrice Soulier also appear among the most famous players of poker.
See also: List of the champions of the world series of poker, : Category: Player of poker
The Grand Prix of Paris
The circle of plays (Backgammon, Rami, Poker, etc) of the Aviation Club of France to Paris on the Fields-Élysées became a stage impossible to circumvent of the World Poker Turn - kind of Grand Prix of the professional players, retransmis for million televiewers each week on Travel Chanel and Canal +.
Great tournaments on television
Today there exist many great international tournaments. It is in these tournaments that one can admire the largest professionals of the poker. One plays there No limit Texas hold' EM. It are for the majority retransmit on the cabled chains or satelitte, but only the final ones of these tournaments are retransmises. Thus One can attend the WPT (World Poker Turn), WSOP (World Series Off Poker), ETP (European Poker Turn) or with the ATP series (Association of Tournaments of Poker). One can say that the current democratization of the poker is due to these tournaments.
See also: Television program of poker
The poker on line
Many companies propose services of online game. These companies place at the disposal of their customers a software of poker and take a commission on the parts which the players via their interface make.
All the types of poker and modes of play are proposed there. These companies always do not respect the legislation of the countries of their customers.
Programs of playThe play of poker (all at least majority of the alternatives) is considered of an out of reach complexity of the Ordinateurs. However, of the methods are developed to obtain an approximation of the perfect strategy (from the point of view of the Game theory) in face to face (two players). In addition, of the increasingly effective algorithms are conceived for situations where more players intervene. The perfect strategy has several significances in this context:
- for the game theory and method of the Minimax it is that which overrides any other strategy;
- for the programs, the problem comes owing to the fact that this optimal strategy varies according to the expertise of the opponent and the weaknesses which it becomes possible to exploit with his costs. In this case, the optimum strategy amounts modelling these weaknesses in order to draw advantage from it.
Some of these systems are based on the Théorème of Bayes, the balance of Nash, Simulation of Monte Carlo and the networks of neurons.
The most known research unit in this field is that of the Université of Alberta which developed Poki, PsOpt and Polaris. Among the members of this team, one can quote Jonathan Schaeffer, instigator in 1991 of this group of research, Neil Burch and Darse Billing, two of the originators of Polaris. Polaris, which plays Texas hold' EM, was measured against two American players of poker of world famous, Phil Laak and Ali Eslami, at the time of the Annual conference on the artificial intelligence which was completed the July 24th 2007 with Vancouver. The two human players gained accuracy after four parts, with a tie, a victory for the software and two victories for the men. In order to balance the randomness of the play, each human only played against an authority of the computer program, and Phil Laak received a hand of two charts identical to that which the authority of Polaris received opposed to Ali Eslami.
- Texas hold' EM (2006) on Xbox 360 in arcade
- World Poker Turn (2006) on GBA, PSP, PC, PS2, Xbox
- Pok3d (2006) on PC (Windows, Linux)
Culture and Company
The poker and art
There exist many representations of gun dogs playing poker. The first of these representations must with Cassius Coolidge which, in 1903, signs a contract of publicity to create sixteen paintings representing of the dogs in human installations. It makes 9 of them representative of the dogs around a table playing poker.
The poker in France
The laws of May 21st, 1836 on the lottery and of June 15th, 1907 on the casinos prohibit any establishment from practicing games of chance in France. Only derogate from the law the French of the plays (state monopoly), the urban mutual Pari (PMU), as well as the casinos recognized by the State. In particular a virtual casino does not have a legal existence in France but the law is in the incapacity to sanction the French user who exploits the foreign sites.
Are considered, in theory, like games of chance, all the plays of money which they are play or card decks other. They are authorized only in houses of play, and are prohibited if not. However, the character of “plays of trade” can be recognized exceptionally with money plays provided that no person can bet on the chances of a player, that perception with the profit of the kitty is reduced to an obligatory fixed right, per player and meeting and that no game of chance is practiced in the same establishment. The money plays authorized for this reason are, in addition to the poker, the Bridge, the Tarot, the Rami (rami, rami-amounts and rami-revivals). They can be practiced in circles of play. Moreover, the practice of these plays is regulated only when they are opened with the public, the regulation does not relate to evenings deprived between friends.
The poker can develop in the players a strong English dependence (: gambling addiction ). The people reached of this dependence lose the reason quickly and spend all their money or their goods in this play. In their head they always have the impression which they will remake, that it is a bad master key, but this way of thinking is guided only by this dependence. Generally, when this dependence is very important, the players play until all to lose.
See also: pathological Play
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