Play of palm
The play of Paume is a Jeu of ball practiced since nearly one millenium. Initially played with naked hand or gantée of leather, it then became a sport of rackets. He is the direct ancestor of the Basque Pelote, of the Balle winds into a ball, of the play of Balle to the tambourine, of the Tennis and more generally of all the sports of Raquette.
The play of palm is associated with the Serment of the play of palm, one of the major events of the beginning of the French revolution.
Play of palm: sport king four centuries during
History of the playThe palm consists in returning a ball, called a éteuf, with the top of a net to the manner of the Tennis and is practiced into individual (1 against 1) or in double (2 against 2), but also to 3 compared with 3 or 4 against 4. The way of counting the points (15, 30,40 and play) is always used with the Tennis. The origin of the form of counting is not clearly established. The port of a leather glove in order to protect the hand which strikes the ball generalizes at the end of the 13th century. The palm is practiced in the beginning in the open air, but as of the 14th century the playing fields are covered with a roof giving rise to the rooms of Jeu de Paume, so called “ tripots ”.
Live, a friend of Érasme, informs us on the play of palm by teaching us, in particular, that there was no referee, and that the judgment had to be respected… spectators! Absolute prohibition to put itself in anger and obligation to wipe themselves and change shirt at the end of each play. The play must be immediately stopped if one of the two players is not physically any more ready to play.
First mention of a Racket to play play of palm in 1505 which was played leather naked hand previously or ganté. The beater, full Racket of wood, had appeared at the previous century. The racket has it a rope in hemp or bowel. The 16th century which opens on this innovation is the golden age of the play of palm in France. Practice with naked hand perdure, some matches opposing even holding them of the two schools, four same:
- naked hand
- gantée hand
In 1610, the paumiers constitute themselves in Corporation. The abuses the tidal wave of the palm in France were to be corrected. Certain not very scrupulous paumiers did not hesitate indeed to stuff their éteufs stones causing of the accidents, sometimes mortals; the brother of Montaigne dies thus. Many rooms are closed while a strict regulation (it is the principle even of a corporation) frames from now on the production of éteufs and other rackets.
The French madness of the play of palmThe madness for the play of palm causes much embarrassment to the authorities which pain to channel this movement which touches everyone, of the king to the simple child, without forgetting the women. The June 22nd 1397, the provost of Paris prohibits the practice of the play of palm the every day, except the Sunday “ because several professionals and others of the small people left their work and their family during the business days, which was extremely prejudicial for the good order public ”. Once again, the players do not hold any account of this interdict and of the parts take place the every day, with the great despair of the authorities.
The Letters patent of the king de France François Ier on November 9th 1527 in particular officialize professionalism sporting, concerned of palm. This revolutionary text indeed puts on the same plan the profits of a player of palm and the fruits of work. Since good a long time already, bets and stakes transformed in fact this sports activity into trade for much.
The women also practiced the play of palm. Let us quote Margot here Hennuyère which then causes the feeling in Paris under English occupation while being imposed upon the best Parisian specialists in the play. It is inclined however vis-a-vis the most physical players.
The March 23rd 1594, the shortly after its royal entry in Paris, Henri IV argument part of play of palm. This part disputed with the Sphere was very appreciated by the Parisian people and made much for the popularity of the new king in the capital.
The Italian Francesco d' Ierni in 1596 estimates at 250 the number of gaming rooms of palm with Paris and 7 000 the number of people who live directly or indirectly of this activity. In Province, the play of palm is also very important. Orleans account thus 40 rooms.
Publication in 1604 in England of The View off France of Sir Robert Dallington (1561 - 1637). Following a stay in France in 1598, this English schoolmaster book a very critical table. The taste for the sport of the French astonishes thus much, “ The French are born a racket with the main ”, and the author is not miserly criticisms because the sport before is very perceived by the English of then, in the purest tradition of Pline the Young person, like a waste of time. Paris account admittedly not less 1 800 rooms and grounds in the open air of play of palm. French passion par excellence, the palm is moulted then in authentic tidal wave. Dallington specifies us that the France is “ a sown country of plays of palm, more than the churches and players more than the beer drinkers in Angleterre. ”
In 1657, 114 gaming rooms of palm are listed in Paris. The palm remains still the sport king of the moment, but it is already in Net retreat under the blows carried by Louis XIII. Louis XIV gives him the death-blow by forsaking this practice completely. By convention, more than by passion, it makes however build a gaming room of Palm to the Château of Versailles which will be quite useful for the Revolutionists a few decades later.
The direct ancestor of tennis
1415. Consequence of the Battle of Azincourt, the duke of Orleans is imprisoned during two decades in England. At the time of this captivity with Wingfield in the Norfolk, the duke introduced in England play of palm which it practices quasi daily. Four centuries later, the descendant of the lord of the manor of Wingfield, Walter Clopton Wingfield, invent the Tennis by adapting the play of palm on grass. Besides tennis takes in the United Kingdom the name Lawn Tennis (tennis on grass) while the play of palm is indicated under the name Real Tennis .
February 23rd 1874. The British Walter Clapton Wingfield deposits a Brevet for the invention of a new sport: the Sphairistike. In fact, Wingfield is based on the play of palm and the invention of the rubber which makes it possible to carry out balls being able to rebound on grass. The sphairistike is the missing link between the play of palm and the Tennis whose name comes besides from a bad pronunciation and writing from the Vieux French by the English.
Play of palm today
When the France forsakes the play of palm at the 18th century, it finds refuge with the the United Kingdom and the the United States. These two nations appear today among most solid just like the Australia whereas the France tries a shy person return in the “ tripots ”. The play of palm was the first Sport to allot a title of “ Champion of Monde ” as of 1740 and without interruption until today. Clergé was the first player crowned world champion.
First Sunday of September the final stages of the Championship of France of Open-air tennis are organized with the Jardin of Luxembourg. There exists in France three rooms where one still plays Palm: one with the Castle of Fontainebleau, with Bordeaux and with Paris (street Lauriston).
At the end of 1940, as it was the case for the Rugby with XIII, the Table tennis, the Badminton and FSGT, the French federation of Jeu de Paume is prohibited by the mode of Vichy (cf its national Révolution) and is amalgamated in 1941 with that of tennis. In April 1942, the mode of Vichy destroyed also 2 other federations amateurs multi-sports and school: UFOLEP and USEP.
Jeu de Paume was also the name of the Musée of Jeu de Paume (In the Jardin of Tileries, Place of the Harmony to Paris). It was built under Napoleon III to replace the room which was destroyed to build the Opéra Garnier. During the Second world war, works of Jewish artists confiscated by the Nazis were stored there. It reopened at the beginning of the Années 1990 with the exposure Jean Dubuffet, becoming on the initiative of Jack Lang the National Gallery of Jeu de Paume, then in 1994 a place dedicated to contemporary Photography.
Jeu de Paume left in the French language the expression “ To impress the galerie ” which was said then when a player made a success of a beautiful blow which impressed the spectators gathered in the covered gallery surrounding the playing field partly.
|Random links:||Saint-Jean-the-Centenier | Federico Tightened | Gull of Saunders | Graphesthesy | Infirmier|