The plastics are organic Matériaux of synthesis founded on the use of the Macromolécule S (Polymère S). One can consider that the rubber S are to be gathered under this name, but it is still largely agreed that this material, taking into account in particular implementation a specific (the Vulcanization), does not form part of it.
Plastic = basic resin + auxiliary + additive
Christophe Colomb brings back seedlings of rubber called Ca-hu-chu by the Indians.
- 1735 : The naturalist French Charles Marie of Condamine discovers the properties of the natural rubber to the Peru.
- 1838 : Henri Regnault synthesizes PVC, without continuation.
- 1839 : Charles Goodyear invents the process of Vulcanization (of rubber by sulfur).
- 1862 : Alexander Parkes presents Parkesine, one of oldest synthetic polymers, during the International exhibition Exhibition of London. This discovery is at the base of modern plastic industry.
- 1869 : The Hyatt brothers invent the celluloid which is regarded as the very first artificial plastic whose origin goes back to 1856 or Nitrate of cellulose (by nitration of the Cellulose of the Bois then hot mixture with Camphre) following a Embargo of balls of Billard in Ivoire during the American Civil War to the the United States of America; but these “Substitute”, of low quality, was replaced as of 1890 by balls in Galalithe.
- 1880 : invention of the Polychloride of vinyl (PVC).
- 1889 : a French chemist, Jean-Jacques Trillat, working on the Caséine of the Lait succeeds in hardening it and obtains the Galalithe or “hones milk”. This matter is harder than the horn, more brilliant than the Os and silkier with the touch than the Ivoire. Soon all the billiard balls will be in galalithe. Post-war period, in 1918, begins the manufacture of current articles, like the button, the jewel imagination, the cigarette-holder where still the pen.
- 1890 : The British Cross-country race and Bewan discover the Viscose by dissolving Acetate in Chloroforme.
- 1905 : Acetate or Rhodoïd.
- 1907 : the Bakélite is discovered by the Belgian Leo Hendrik Baekeland.
- 1908 : the Cellophane.
- 1927 : Polymethylmethacrylate (LDC), commercially known under the names of Plexiglass and Altuglas.
- 1930 : the Polystyrene and the Polyamide by Wallace Carothers (Nylon ®) working for Dupont de Nemours ®. It was the first high performance engineering plastics.
- 1933 : the Polyethylene low density.
- 1938 : the Polytétrafluoréthylène (Teflon ®), which offers a great strength to the Corrosion and heat.
And, during the Second world war which exacerbated the requirements in raw materials:
1940 : the Polyurethane.
- 1941 : the Melamine (which belongs to the big family of the amino resins derived from urea and cyanamides) by companies such as Ciba ® and Henkel ® but without commercial real success. Its exceptional properties of heat strength, to the light, the chemicals, abrasion and fire explain its success in the immediate future Après-guerre.
- 1941 : the Silicone.
Starting from the release, the scientific and technological dash insufflated with the Industrie by the war continued and of new matters were synthesized: new polyamides, Polycarbonate S, acetals, resins epoxy in 1947. Then the discoveries of new matters were done rarer:
- In 1954: one year later, the Polypropène, or rather polypropylene, was developed by the Italian chemist Giulio Natta. These two scientists shared in 1963 the Nobel Prize of chemistry thanks to their studies on polymers. These two last plastics, polyethylene and the polypropylene, were produced in the year 2000.
- the more resistant ABS ® and more brilliance tends little by little to replace the Mélamine. It is a matter nobler than polystyrene, very much used in preparing of equipment electric household appliances and sometimes in Emballage (Couvercle S). It is also used out of accessories of bathrooms and in industry. Also exist in translucent version (M-ABS says transparent ABS).
- the Kevlar ®, born in the Years 1990, is a very resistant polyamide:
- with the shocks (Bullet-proof jacket and bulletproof Pane, Layer anti-drilling);
- with fire: helmets and jackets of Firemen, oven gloves, etc It is necessary to acknowledge that its great success in this field is also due to the prohibition of the Amiante.
Chemistry and general Composition
The primary product (resin) is a mixture of Molécule S in long chains called Polymère S.
In addition to the resin , the additive and auxiliary are there to improve the chemical and physical properties of the Matériau, in particular the impact resistance, the color, plasticity, resistance to the ageing, etc
- the basic resin .
- auxiliary and additive .
- Plasticizer S : in general liquid or viscous, allow to make the resin flexible and elastic.
- lubricating : facilitate the moulding.
- pigments : give the color of the plastic.
- stabilizing : the degradation of the plastic, resistance to the Ultraviolet S delay (lic salts Métal of Plomb, tin, Baryum, Sodium, etc).
- loads or reinforcements : reduce the cost, increase the Mechanical resistance (marks Kevlar and Teflon).
- mineral loads : carbonate calcium, Talc, Amiante, Graphite, Silice, Glass fiber, Mica, etc
- loads organic : flour of Wood, fibers natural or synthetic, anti-static etc
- : be opposed to the deposits dust while making the plastic conducting on the surface.
- fungicidal : resisting the Micro-organism S, asepsis.
- fireproofing agent : delaying the propagation of the flames.
- solvents : for Painting S (Coating).
Families of plastics.
The Thermoplastique S become deformed and are façonnables under the action of the Chaleur, keep this form while cooling. This property allows their recycling: the objects are crushed and remelted to work out others of them.
Most widespread are the Polychlorure of vinyl, the Polystyrène (Jouet S, Kitchen utensils, etc), the Acrylique S, the Polyamide S, the Polyoléfine S (Polypropylène, Polyéthylène high or low density).
The Thermodurcissable S take their final form with the first cooling, the reversibility is impossible.
Most famous are the Phénoplaste S (Bakélite), the amino ones (Mélamine).
The elastomers are polymers having same elastic qualities as rubber. They are employed in the manufacture of the cushions, certain insulators or tires, they are very resistant materials.
See also the Code list of the plastics, rubber and latexes .
Techniques of transformation
- Extrusion: extrusion-calendering, extrusion-inflation, extrusion of profile, extrusion cast
- Stratification (Composite)
- Coating of various supports (metals, textiles…)
- Welding (by hot blade, friction, high frequency…)
- Granulation (crushing for recycling)
- Agglomeration (or Thickening): recovery, by reforming, of waste low thicknesses (films or equivalent)
; Surface treatment (S)
- Fluidization coating - surface treatment - application grounds
- treatment corona (the impression allows)
- Thermoforming plastic
- “Macrogalleria the marvellous cibermonde of polymers”
- Abbreviations of many polymers
- “CAMPUS. Material information system for the plastics industry” (in English)
- “Pichot Laboratories: Manufacturer of plastic bottles and pill machines with polymers”
- Plastics Dome - Guide to plastics (in English)
- “Gaggione - Mouldings by injection, optical and technical components of precision”
- Cadflow - Software of simulation and Engineering for the plasturgie
- - Toray Plastics
- European School of Chemistry, Polymers and Materials in Strasbourg
- National institute of Sciences Applied of Strasbourg
- Institute of higher learning of Plasturgie of [[Alençon] (Flowering ash)]
- College Arbez Carmelite friar Oyonnax-Bellignat
- Conservatory National of Arts and Trades (Paris)
- European School Genious Engineers of Materials in Nancy
- Training institute and of research in chemistry and formulation of the polymers
- ITECH Lyon School of engineer specialized in chemistry of the polymers
Simple: Plastic Zh-yue: 塑膠
|Random links:||Berentzwiller | RevoluciÃ³n reservada | Hubertine Auclert | Euphorbium of wood | Secrecies of Fátima | David H.D. Warren | Commentaire_(voix_hors_champs)|