Plasmodium is one of Protozoaire S parasites, of which five S cause the Paludisme at the Man.
PropagationThe parasite is transmitted to the Man by a puncture of Anophèle (Moustique of the hot and marshy areas). At the Man, it infects the red Globules and the cells of the liver during the parasitic cycle. Other species of Plasmodium were found in various animals: the Monkey S, the Bird X, the Lizard S…
In 1881 Laveran an opuscule Publishes: Parasitic nature of the accidents of the impaludism in which it describes the principal forms under which presents the hématozoaire. In 1882 it goes to Rome to study paludic Roman campaign. He discovers in their blood the same parasite as that found in Constantine In 1898 Ronald Ross showed the existence of the Plasmodium in the stomach of the Moustique Anopheles , the Anophèle. This discovery was worth the to him Nobel Prize in 1902. However it is also necessary to pay homage to the Italian professor Giovanni Battista Grassi (1854-1925), who showed that paludism at the man, could be transmitted only by the mosquitos anophèles.
Species implied in human pathology
- Plasmodium falciparum (which causes a “malignant” form of paludism, or malignant third fever because having a periodicity of the feverish recrudescences of 3j).
- Plasmodium vivax .
- rarest oval Plasmodium (which causes a “benign” form of paludism or third fever because having a periodicity of the feverish recrudescences of 3j) is met only in certain zones of intertropical Africa.
- Plasmodium malariae (the cause of “benign” paludism quad).
- Plasmodium knowlesi near genetically, clinically and microscopically of Plasmodium malariae , and recent discovery at the man in Malaysia (was known in the monkey in particular).
Parasitic cycleThe cycle of Plasmodium is very complex. It starts at the man by the injection of parasite in the form of sporozoïte by a mosquito, the female anophèle. These sporozoïtes migrates towards the liver via blood circulation or lymphatic where they will invade the hépatocytes. They are different then in schizonte hepatic which salt out mérozoïtes in blood. At certain species ( oval P. and P .vivax ) a stage Cryptozoïte remains hidden in the liver, the parasite awakes then several months or years to take again its cycle later. The mérozoïtes infect then the red globules where they are different in the form from the stages ring and amiboïde (Trophozoïte S). The active parasites (Mérozoïte S) which is then produced, leave the erythrocyte and travel with new blood to invade érythrocyte S. After them (Mérozoïte S) news Hématie S invaded, the sexual stages (Gamétocyte S) are produced and can beings aspired by a mosquito Anophèle female. They form zygotes which divide to produce great numbers of tiny Sporozoïte S. the sporozoïtes (which is the infectious stage) migrate towards salivary glands of the mosquito where they are injected into the blood of the following host. The sporozoïtes are driven then in the liver where they repeat the cycle. The Fièvre S of the malaria are due to the activities of the parasites in blood which break the cells and produce toxic substances. Because of the complexity of the life cycle of these parasites, it is difficult to develop a Vaccin.
---- A plasmodium is also the macroscopic form of some Protozoaire S found in the mud.
List speciesPlasmodium achiotense - P. aegyptensis - P. aeuminatum - P. agamae - P. anasum - P. atheruri - P. azurophilum - P. balli - P. bambusicolai - P. basilisci - P. berghei - P. bigueti - P. brasilianum - P. brygooi - P. booliati - P. bubalis - P. bucki - P. coatneyi - P. cathemerium - P. cephalophi - P. chabaudi - P. chiricahuae - P. circularis - P. cnemidophori - P. coatneyi - P. coggeshalli - P. colombiense - P. corradettii - P. coturnix - P. coulangesi - P. cuculus - P. cyclopsi - P. cynomolgi - P. diminutivum - P. diploglossi - P. dissanaikei - P. dominicana - P. durae - P. egerniae - P. elongatum - P. eylesi - P. fabesia - P. fairchildi - P. falciparum - P. fallax - P. fieldi - P. foleyi - P. forresteri - P. floridense - P. fragile - P. garnhami - P. gallinaceum - P. giganteum - P. giovannolai - P. girardi - P. gonatodi - P. gonderi - P. georgesi - P. gracilis - P. griffithsi - P. guanggong - P. gundersi - P. guyannense - P. heischi - P. hegneri - P. hermani - P. heteronucleare - P. hexamerium - P. holaspi - P. huffi - P. hylobati - P. icipeensis - P. inopinatum - P. inui - P. jefferi - P. josephinae - P. juxtanucleare - P. kempi - P. knowlesi - P. kentropyxi - P. leanucteus - P. lemuris - P. lophurae - P. lepidoptiformis - P. lygosomae - P. mabuiae - P. mackerrasae - P. maculilabre - P. maior - P. malariae - P. marginatum - P. matutinum - P. mexicanum - P. minasense - P. morulum - P. nucleophilium - P. octamerium - P. odocoilei - P. ovale - P. Papernai - P. paranucleophilum - P. parvulum - P. pedioecetii - P. pelaezi - P. percygarnhami - P. petersi - P. pifanoi - P. pinotti - P. pinorrii - P. pitheci - P. pitmani - P. polare - P. praecox - P. reichenowi - P. relictum - P. rhadinurum - P. rhodaini - P. robinsoni - P. rouxi - P. sandoshami - P. sasai - P. schweitzi - P. silvaticum - P. simium - P. semiovale - P. shortii - P. Smirnovi - P. subpraecox - P. tenue - P. tejerai - P. tomodoni - P. torrealbai - P. traguli - P. tribolonoti - P. tropiduri - P. uilenbergi - P. watteni - P. wenyoni - P. vacuolatum - P. vastator - P. vaughani - P. vinckei - P. vivax - P. volans - P. yoelii - P. youngi
Malaria Atlas Project
- course of Eucaryote Microbiology: Apicomplexans
- Plasmodium on MicrobeWiki
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