The pigeon biset is the Espèce which include/understand the domestic pigeon and the majority of the pigeons of the cities but which also remains like wild bird in its original natural environment: rock cliffs and other mediums. It is a Phénotype domestic different from the wild phenotype.
DomesticationThe pigeon is domesticated since prehistory. The Colombier S of the Roman epoch, quoted by Pline Old the in its Natural history essentially disappeared, but the built European dovecotes of the Moyen-âge at the 19th century constitute an architectural heritage still alone, of a variety of forms and decorations which does not have an equivalent for the farmyards or other livestock buildings, except the stables.
See also: Carrier pigeon
The pigeon indeed knew important commercial and military functions, playing until 1918 a big role, even essential for the transmission of the strategic messages. It seems besides that the Chinese, the Egyptians, Persians, and the Greeks very early learned how to benefit from the remarkable instinct which brings back to pigeon the domesticated pigeon. The carrier pigeons thus became vectors and carrying important messages which changed the military course of campaigns, of stories of love or the capacity and the plots. They were also used for the trade and the financial speculation.
Slaves or servants, then specialized soldiers were assigned to the breeding, the care and the transport of the pigeons messengers. To shelter and raise its pigeons, the Roman Empire built many and the enormous pigeon ones being able to shelter 4 000 with 5 000 pigeons each one. The messages could be coded, or it is simply the pigeon which could carry an object (coloured ribbon) or be itself dyed to announce a news. With the seat of Modena by Marc Antoine, in 43 before J. - C., the Consul Hirtius is famous to have forwarded to Decimus Brutus, ordering city, a message attached to the neck of a pigeon which Decimus Brutus answered by a message attached to the leg of another pigeon. Pline the Old one in its Natural history evokes the least utility of the ramparts, sentinels and seats whereas one can forward of the news through space .
The crusaders travelled with a true fast, air-mail service before the hour, ensured by pigeons. The Pirate S and Corsaire S would have used some.
A difficulty of the system is that it is necessary to have pigeons raised in the pigeon one of the recipient. It can also happen that the pigeon dies on the way, possibly under the greenhouses of the Faucon drawn up at hunting, this is why the important messages were sent in several copies by different pigeons.
After the Pigeons of the war of 1870, the Pigeon of 1914-1918 still played an important function, but which is almost extinct with the development of the transmissions by electric ways (Télégraphe, Téléphone) then Hertzien born or mixed, related to the network Internet or with the cellphone. Nevertheless one can quote the “ Project Pigeon ” (Projet Pigeon) which at the time of the Second world war, was intended to use pigeons drawn up to guide a Missile. Many armies always maintain a small number of carrier pigeons, which are used also sometimes for the rescue (at sea for example).
At the time of the Industrial revolution, it is at the 19th century become an animal of contest cherished by many associations pigeon fanciers (approximately 10 000 members for the only area Nord-Pas-de-Calais in France at the end of the 20th century, and as much other side of the border).
Pigeons of the citiesPigeon soldiers, seigneuriaux or abbeys, then breedings amateurs, in particular of carrier pigeons, the pigeon colonized the cities. It is there now a characteristic host, and its dense and sedentarized populations pose sometimes problem. Commensal of the Man, it has had for a few decades to face the increasing competition of the starlings starlings and the Laridés (Mouette S, Goéland S…) who do not divide however completely its ecological Niche.
SpeciesThe pigeons of city are for the majority of the pigeons bisets, (90% with Paris) the other species being the Wood pigeon and the Pigeon wad. One finds the Turkish Tourterelle also more and more, rather in the parks, and in semi-urban or perish-urban medium, the latter is not classified like vermin.
The pigeons bisets nest in cavities of buildings. Their populations result mainly if not exclusively from livestock having escaped to the control of the Man (phenomenon of marronnage). This is highlighted by their Phénotype S varied which frequently reflects characters selected at certain domestic races (color white, russet-red, pigeon tie…). Certain subjects show a completely wild phenotype however.
The other species result from wild populations which colonized urban environment.
The wood pigeon is of bigger size and niche in the trees of the parks and gardens.
- Columba livia dakhlae Meinertzhagen, 1928
- Columba livia gaddi (Zarudny & Loudon, 1906)
- Columba livia gymnocycla G.R. Gray, 1856
- Columba livia intermedia Strickland, 1844
- Columba livia livia Gmelin, 1789
- Columba livia neglecta Hume, 1873
- Columba livia palaestinae Zedlitz, 1912
- Columba livia schimperi Bonaparte, 1854
- Columba livia targia Geyr von Schweppenburg, 1916
Perception by the townsmenThe pigeons of city are variously appreciated. Their old presence makes that they often form part of the tradition of a place, like the Place Saint-Marc with Venice. A certain number of inhabitants there are attached, take pleasure to nourish them or to observe them, while others develop an aversion even a phobia in their connection.
The rise of the pandemic risk related to the virus H5N1 of the Avian flu of 2003 with 2006 justified in many countries a prohibition to nourish the pigeons. In Indonesia, after episodes of mortality of pigeons, certain groups of pigeons were cut down and burned. Knowing that an sick bird can contaminate by its excrements and its blood, to draw them with rifle was probably not the best solution. It would have better been necessary to trap them or deaden them with treated soft foods. In France in 2005, the gathering of birds or their flight in freedom was prohibited, with certain exemption for the pigeons. Certain metropolises prohibit to nourish the pigeons, except in the event of breeding.
The pigeon of city and mainly the biset (100 000 with Paris), is responsible for many evils and Nuisance S:
- emission of droppings (odors) and particles allergens;
- transport and transmission of Disease S (Bactérie S, parasite S, Virus, of which, a priori seldom, that of the Avian flu). The fear of diseases transmitted by pigeons is not new: In 1714, according to the chroniclers of the time, the pigeons of Paris were decimated by a named disease “ small pox ”. One decided to kill all the survivors, believing that they transported the virus at the Men and the ewe . Jean Blancou estimates retrospectively that it could be a question of a case of avian flu;
- their nests are considered to attract Rat S and Insecte S, which could also transmit diseases;
- noise pollutions on the roofs of the dwellings;
- degradation of the monuments by the acidity of the droppings and the stain.
Control populationVarious methods of control of its population are used downtown:
- drives out, trapping with the net (that less and less is used because dangerous and badly perceived by the inhabitants);
- introduction or protection of Raptor S;
- installation of Pigeon S in which it is easier to attract the pigeons and to control of it the Natalité and health;
- sterilization of pigeons, via surgery veterinary surgeon or chemical with food.
- '' Histoire of the carrier pigeon domesticated ''
- '' Histoire of the post office ''
- Article of '' Libération '' on the polemic which the pigeon downtown
- starts the Gate French-speaking Pigeon fancier
- Some photographs of pigeons bizet
- , very complete site on the pigeon biset
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