Impassioned psychology as of its childhood, Pierre Janet (Paris: 1859 - 1947) take the advice of its Master Théodule Ribot to be formed simultaneously in Philosophie (only course of psychology at the time) and in Médecine (neurology also tackling psychological questions). Normalien, it is aggregate of philosophy in 1882, doctor of philosophy in 1889 ( the psychological automatism ) and doctor of medicine in 1893 ( Contribution to the study of the mental accidents at the Hystérique S ). In 1889, neurologist J.M. Charcot entrusts to him the direction of the laboratory of psychology of the Salpêtrière, which it will keep until his dissolution by Jules Dejerine in 1910. He founds the Journal of Normal and Pathological Psychology (1904) and the Société of Psychology (1901), which will become in 1941 and until our days the French company of Psychology . After a few years of teaching of philosophy in College and with the Sorbonne, it replaces Ribot then succeeds to him the Collège de France, where it occupies the pulpit of Psychology Experimental and Compared of 1902 to 1934. It Marie in 1894 with Marguerite Duchesne, of which he will have three children, Helene, Fanny and Michel. Pierre Janet is received with the Institut of France in 1923 (Academy of Science Morals and Policies) with the armchair of the philosopher Alfred Fouillée. In 1929 it chairs the Médico-Psychological Société - always activates nowadays -, where it had been allowed since 1894.
Its method of psychological investigation is based on the experimentation with subjects which consult it within the psychiatric framework. This is why in addition to its psychological research, it will publish also abundant work of Psychopathologie: paradoxically, it is this psychiatric part of its work which currently is used, while its psychology remains still under exploited. Friend and interlocutor of the principal mental specialists, psychologists and philosophers of his time (for example William James and Henri Bergson), the majority of the large psychologists and psychiatrists of the following generation will refer to his results, like Henri Baruk, Leon Chertok, Jean Delay, Henri Ey, Ignace Meyerson, Eugene Minkowski, Jean Piaget, Henri Piéron, and Henri Wallon. Pierre Janet published nearly 120 articles of research in reviews at reading panel international Frenchwomen and, and margin of his research tasks approximately 30 books almost all republished recently. He is buried close to the house of his parents with Borough-the-Queen (Hauts de Seine), where since 2004 its tomb is flowered and maintained by the good care the municipality in partnership with the Institut Pierre Janet.
The “psychology of the conduits” of Pierre Janet is an experimental synthesis of the fields corresponding nowadays to the cognitive Psychologie (perception, motricity, reasoning, attention), the social Psychologie (representations) and the dynamic psychology of which he is the founder, this last specialization having disappeared from the university research like autonomous field (effect of the variations of force and tiredness on the personality). It is possible to distinguish three from its contributions to experimental psychology.
A characterization of the emotionJanet gets busy throughout its career to define the types and the properties of the emotions, within the framework of a modeling of the relationship between the emotion and the action (let us note that the emotion is what it calls “feelings”, while its “emotions” are what is called today the emotional shocks). Secondary actions of regulation of the principal act (reductions or amplifications), the emotions give the degrees of the “feeling of reality” and adjust the act with the relevance of the context. The quantity and the contents of the emotions depend mainly on the force or tiredness on the subject, therefore of its capacity to undertake, improve and complete its actions: effective actions produce emotions corresponding well to the situation, for example to be sad with a burial, merry with a festival, generating in both cases the impression of living the moment present fully (“presentification”). Blocked actions produce shifted emotions, for example to be dark all the time, to be merry in serious situations (cases rare but spectacular), or not to feel emotions of the whole more: “They have well happiness, to be unhappy, my neighbors! ” regrets a patient if weakened that after having already lost all the feelings of joy, she does not manage even any more to feel those of sadness.
A modeling of the relationship between the thought and the actionDynamic psychology gives an account of the cognitive effects, because it is the force available for the actions which determines the quantity and the quality of the thoughts and the words, and not the thoughts which direct the acts:
Quantitatively, the thought develops in the proportion which the “action of the members” is blocked. The effective action is surrounded by few thoughts, the delayed action or obstructed all the more carts cognitive residues (invading ideas, interminable reasoning, justifications a posteriori).
- Qualitatively, the contents of thought closely depend on the force of the subject to conclude its actions. Blocked actions develop the blackness of the ideas, the overvaluation of the role of the will (“in fact, I do not want any really, of this new car”), and disconnect the speech from the actions, which becomes more or less a “soft language”: the words of projects or engagements are not carried out, the Langage, in general, relates to impossible actions (“if I were rich… ”) or on any topic possibility empties of acting (topicality, weather, passed and future distance). The soft language of Pierre Janet is close to the “cognitive Dissonance” (Festinger, 1957) of current cognitive psychology, by adding to it the interaction between cognitive and it dynamic.
The integration of the levels cognitive and dynamicPierre Janet endeavors to show in experiments the effect of the force and tiredness (dynamic level) on the “synthesis” (cognitive level). The synthesis is the cognitive process simultaneously to maintain with the spirit several perceptions and ideas. It determines the extent of the “field of Conscience”, together of the temporarily grouped psychological phenomena. The synthesis is increased by the force (which is observed with the number and the quality of the actions, like the ratios actions/ideas/emotions), and is reduced by a temporary weakness (circadian Oscillation, Traumatisme, disease) or stable (children, adults in chronic discomfort).
A narrow field of conscience will be saturated by only one perception or idea (or very a small number), all control then expressing it without reserve. The current forms of this effect are:
- idéo-motricity: any idea/hardly evoked simple action is translated moving and is carried out. The young children miment irresistibly the gestures evoked in a song, a tired adult automatically lights a cigarette or firm its door with key (“automatism” of Janet).
- distraction: the phenomena not integrated by synthesis are neglected (they can however remain in memory). A child playing sun “forgets” that it is thirsty, but vacuum the bottle in apnea when his/her relative proposes it. A tired adult crosses a friend without recognizing it, crosses the street without looking at. The defect of synthesis deteriorates the capacities of attention/concentration, perseverance, and judgment (formation of relationship between several ideas).
- emotivity: any idea of sorrow immediately causes a violent crisis of tears, the idea of joy makes completely hilarious, a fear is immediately a panic. These emotions are cut context (which is not present at the spirit) and the intensity of their expression translates their surface character paradoxically: that another idea is presented to the spirit, it drives out the preceding one (both not being able to remain together) and all control is modified in the moment.
A broad field of conscience will maintain assembled with the spirit several different perceptions and ideas: control will then reflect a deliberation between these varied possibilities. The idea/action selected will be moderate in its expression by the weighting of the other ideas not expressed but present at the spirit. Control is more stable and is adjusted with the complex elements of each situation. The current forms of this effect are:
- will and belief: it are both the result of the interior deliberation between several ideas/actions maintained with the spirit simultaneously. The deliberation which leads to an act among several possible is the will, that which leads to an idea among several possible is the belief.
- the judgment: it is the result of the regrouping to the spirit of several independent ideas to produce a news by synthesis of it. Its simple forms begin as of the perceptive acts: to greet a friend, it is not only necessary to have the idea of its existence, but also to mobilize our knowledge about it, those of all our relation passed, and to wait until it is opposite us.
- observation of the rules: the rules morals and logics constitute considerable complications of the simple conduits. Can reach only the subjects it having more force than one should not any to carry out the current actions. It is this surplus of force which makes it possible to complicate the act in there integral for example the rule of the excluded third, the good chronology, decency or the courtesy.
- Contribution to the study of the mental state of the hystericals . Harmattan, 2004.
- Obsessions and Psychasténie . 3 vol., Harmattan, 2005.
- the psychological automatism . Harmattan, 2005.
- love and hatred . Harmattan, 2005.
- psychological medicine . Harmattan, 2005. ISBN 2747581810. Text on line: . This work informs in particular the experimental results of Janet on the Hypnose and the Suggestion.
- psychological evolution of the personality . Harmattan, 2005. ISBN 2747577848
- evolution of the memory and the notion of time . Harmattan, 2006.
- Neuroses and obsessions . 2 vol., Harmattan, 2007.
- psychological medications . 3 vol., Harmattan, 2007.
- the interior thought and its disorders . Harmattan, 2007.
- Conferences in Salpêtrière . Harmattan, 2003.
- the psychoanalysis of Freud . Harmattan, 2004. ISBN 2747575322
- Lessons at the Collège de France . Harmattan, 2004.
- First psychological writings . Harmattan, 2005.
- psychological amnesia. The case Emma Dutemple . Harmattan, 2006.
- Philosophy and psychology . Harmattan, 2006.
On Janet (selection)
- Autobiography off Pierre Janet, In Murchison C. (ED.) " With history off Psychology in autobiography" , 1930, vol.1, pp. 123-133
- psychological Autobiography. Philosophical studies. New series, No April 2nd, th and th - June 1946, pp. 81-87.
- Henri Baruk (1989). Significance of the work of Pierre Janet. Yearly Médico-Psychological 147 (9): 940-941.
- François-Louis Bertrand (1947). A large psychologist, Pierre Janet. State education 19, p. 1 June 2nd, 12th and th 1947.
- Leon Chertok (1960). In connection with the discovery of the cathartic therapy, Bull. of Psych. (Homage to P. Janet) 184 (XIV): 33-37.
- Louis Crocq, Jean De Verbizier (1989). The psychological traumatism in the work of Janet. Ann. Médico-Psychol. 147 (9): 983-987.
- Jean Delay (1960). Pierre Janet and the psychological tension. French Psychology 5:93 - 100.
- Henri F. Ellenberger (1970) P. Janet and psychological analysis. In History of discovered unconscious , D-ED. Beech 1994.
- Henri Ey (1968) Pierre Janet: the man and the work. In Wolman, Hist. Roots off Contemp. Psychology . To grip and Row ED.
- Laurent Fedi (2007). Automatism and will in the thesis of Pierre Janet. Psychiatry, Sc Hum., Neurosc. , Vol.5 (1): 36-47.
- Gerhard Heim (2006). Janet' S concepts in current Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Janetian Studies Special No 01:9 - 14. Text on line: .
- Stephan Laurens, Topshiaki Kozakaï (2003) P. Janet and social memory. Connections 80:59 - 75.
- Hironobu Matsuura (2006). Pierre Janet and Bergson. Janetian Studies Special No 01:15 - 18.
- Elton Mayo (1948). Off summon Notes one the Psychology Pierre Janet. Cambridge, Harvard University Close, (132 P.) - Published in England under the title: The Psychology off Pierre Janet. London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952 (132 p.)
- Ignace Meyerson (1947). P. Janet and the theory of the tendencies. Journ. of Psych. Norm. and Path. 40:5 - 19.
- Jean Milhaud (1947). Pierre Janet thinker and chief of school. Men and technical , March.
- Eugene Minkowski (1960). In connection with the last publications of Pierre Janet, Bull. of Psych. (Homage to P. Janet) 184 (XIV): 121-127.
- Andrew Moskowitz (2006). Janet' S influences one off Bleuler' S concept Schizophrenia. Janetian Studies Special No 01:24 - 39.
- Dominique Parodi (1948). Janet (Pierre). Friendly association of the Former students of the National university, p. 27-30.
- Jean Piaget (1960). The genetic aspect of the work of P. Janet. Psych. Frenchwoman 5 (1): 111-117.
- Georges Pichat (1947). Short speech pronounced at the time of the death of Mr. Pierre Janet. Academy of Science morals and political.
- Henri Piéron (1960). Conscience and control at P. Janet, Bull. of Psych. (Homage to P. Janet) 184 (XIV): 149-153.
- Claude-MR. Prévost (1973). the psycho-philosophy of Pierre Janet. Mental economies and human progress , Payot, ISBN 2228113700
- Claude-MR. Prévost (1973). Janet, Freud and the Clinic psychology , Payot.
- Isabelle Saillot (2006). Cognitive Dissonance and soft language of P. Janet: bringing together. Janetian Studies , vol. 3. Text on line: .
- Isabelle Saillot (2007). The hierarchy of Pierre Janet of the synthesis to the tendencies, criticisms and topicality in cognitive and social psychology. Janetian Studies , Special No 02:102 - 121.
- Taylor, W.S. (1947). Pierre Janet: 1859-1947. American Newspaper off Psychology vol. 60, No 4, pp. 637-645
- Onno van DER Binder, O. (2006). The influences off Pierre Janet' S Views in the Field off Psychotraumatology. Janetian Studies , Special No 01:54 - 63. Text on line: .
- Rene Van der Veer (2006). Janet' S constructive theory off the social mind. Janetian Studies , vol. 3 (on line).
- Walloon Henri (1960). Pierre Janet, realistic psychologist, Bull. of Psych. (Homage to P. Janet) 184 (XIV): 154-156.
- Autobiography of Pierre Janet extracted from C. Murchison (to dir.) History off Psychology in Autobiography .
- Works of Pierre Janet in line
- Institute Pierre Janet
- Bibliography of Pierre Janet (on the site of the Institute Pierre Janet)
- Bibliography on Pierre Janet (on the site of the Institute Pierre Janet)
- electronic Janetian Studies Re-examined on Pierre Janet
- Dr. Henri F. Ellenberger, life and the work of Pierre Janet.
- But where is thus Pierre Janet? Claude Mr. PREVOST
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