Pierre Brossolette , born with Paris on June 25th, 1903 and deceased with Paris on March 22nd, 1944, was a socialist politician French and was leading French Résistance. He had been made Compagnon of the Release in 1942.
Studies, socialism and journalismBorn with Paris, it enters first to the National university in 1922. It is received second with the aggregation of history, behind Georges Bidault. He marries Gilberte Bruel in 1926 of which he will have a child Claude Pierre-Brossolette, future general secretary of the Elysium under the presidency of Valery Giscard d'Estaing and father of Sylvie Pierre-Brossolette.
He adheres to the French Section of the International worker (SFIO) in 1929. Initially enthusiastic defender of the pacifist and European ideals of Aristide Briand, his designs develop when it becomes aware of the reality of the threat Nazi. He is also member of the Ligue of the human rights, the international League against the anti-semitism, and is Franc-maçon.
Journalist within several newspapers ( new Europe , the Daily newspaper , civic Progress , the Primary educations , Our time , Excelsior , Marianne and with the Free Ground ), as that of the SFIO Popular the (where he is writer of foreign politics); he also works for Radio-postal and telecommunications authorities, of which he is laid off in January 1939 when he is opposed in an emission to the Accords of Munich.
ResistanceAt the beginning of the Second world war, it joined the army with the rank of lieutenant and is promoted captain before the defeat of France. Hostile with the Mode of Vichy, it joined the group of the museum of the Man then takes part in the formation of the groups of resistance Release-North and civil Organization and soldier in the occupied zone. Later, it rejoins the socialist Comité of action and becomes section head presses and propaganda of the Notre-Dame Brotherhood. When the mode of Vichy prohibits to him to teach, Brossolette and his wife open a bookstore with Paris, street of the Pump, which serves of meeting place and “letter-box” for the resistant ones.
In April 1942, Brossolette undertakes a voyage to London as a representative of the resistance to meet Charles de Gaulle. He works consequently for the central Bureau of information and action (BCRA), in connection with the Special Operations Executive (SOE) British. He is thus parachuted and of return to Paris with André Dewavrin, alias the Colonel Passy, and F.F.E. Yeo-Thomas, alias “the White Rabbit”, agent of the SOE. They will manage to unify the whole of the resistance movements of the occupied zone. Pierre Brossolette is also the speaking pipe in Paris of the combatants of the shade. In a speech with the Albert Hall, in 1942, it pays a vibrating homage to the “soutiers of glory”.
PolicyPierre Brossolette is very critical with respect to the IIIe République which it makes responsible for the defeat, and estimates that the Release to come will have to be the occasion of a deep democratic restoration, in particular by the birth of a great “Party of Resistance” called to carry out a policy of ambitious social transformation. A common program very near to these aspirations will be worked out by the National council of resistance in March 1944, the month of died of Brossolette.
This criticism of the IIIe République will be the main subject of discord with Jean Moulin, and the opposition of the parties will be worth to him in addition. Thus the day before its arrest, Brossolette is excluded from the Socialist party by Gaston Defferre, decision which will not be applied because of its disappearance. So initially the IVe République will join again with manners of IIIe, the introduction of the Ve République will represent for some the validation a posteriori ideas of Brossolette over the post-war period.
ArrestAfter having escaped several times at arrests, Brossolette is stopped the February 3rd 1944 close to Douarnenez whereas it returns to London to introduce the new chief of CNR, Emile Bollaert, with the Général de Gaulle. Indeed the Norway pine (the Jouet of the Floods ) which must lead it on an English boat makes shipwreck because of the bad weather close to the point to the Strong current, and the two chiefs of Resistance fail on the coast, where they are controlled and taken along in prison to Rennes. After weeks without being recognized, Misselwitz in person comes to identify it on the spot and the Germans transfer it the March 19th to the general headquarter from the Gestapo in Paris, 84 avenue Foch. One still does not know what could denounce it, that is to say escapes on the escape bids which prepared under the initiative of F.F.E. Yeo-Thomas (captured in Paris a few days before) and Agnès Humbert; that is to say a mail uncoded on behalf of Claude Bouchinet-Serreules towards London which would have been intercepted on the Spanish border; that is to say still, according to the legend, its characteristic white wick appeared under the dyeing.
DeathTo oblige it to speak, Brossolette is tortured during two days and half. The March 22nd, benefitting from one moment of carelessness of the guard, it would have risen of its chair the shackles behind the back, opened the window of the Chambre of good in which it was locked up, fallen initially on the balcony from the 4th stage and then in front of the entry from the building side avenue. Another more dubious thesis affirms than it would have fallen side court. Seriously wounded, he will succumb to his wounds around 10 p.m. with the Hôpital of Salpêtrière, without to have spoken.
The March 24th, it is incinerated with the Cimetière of the Father-Lachaise, where his ashes are preserved with those of the another resistant dead same day, in two ballot boxes.
- Chevalier of the Legion of Honor.
- Companion of the Release, decree of October 17th, 1942.
- Military Cross 1939-1945, 2 quotations.
- Medal of Resistance with rivet washer.
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