The Piedmontese ( piemontèis into Piedmontese, piemontese in Italian) is a language with more than 2 million speakers in Piedmont, in the North-West of the Italy. The Piedmontese one belongs to the linguistic unit Italian septentrional (with the lombard, the émilien-romagnol, the Ligure, the Vénitien and the Istriote) and it belongs to the Western group of the Romance Langues, like the French, the Occitan and the Catalan. Many linguists (for example, Einar Haugen, Hans Göbl, Helmut Lüdtke, George Bossong, Klaus Bochmann, Karl Gebhardt, Guiu Sobiela Caanitz, Gianrenzo P. Clivio) recognize the Piedmontese one like a independent Langue, although in Italy he is often considered, even today, like a Italian Dialecte. Currently, the Piedmontese one is not recognized like official language. The Piedmontese one was the primary language of the emigrants who left Piedmont, during the time 1850-1950, to be established abroad in France, Argentine and Uruguay.
The first documents in Piedmontese language, the sermonize subalpini , were written at the 12th century, when the language was still very close to the occitan. The Piedmontese arts person developed with. The Piedmontese one did not have the literary success of French or Italian, others Langue S used in Piedmont. However, the Literature into Piedmontese forever ceased being produced: it includes/understands several kinds, of the Poésie to the Romance Théâtre and of the S with scientific works.
CharacteristicsBetween the most notable characteristics of the Piedmontese language one can quote:
the presence of verbal pronouns , which give to the Piedmontese sentence the following form: (subject) + verbal pronoun + verb, as in semi I von I go. The verbal pronouns are absent only in the imperative form and the " interrogative form piémontaise".
- the agglutinant form of the verbal pronouns , which can bind to the datives and rental particles ( have E has there, i-j diso say to him)
- the interrogative form, which adds an interrogative particle enclitic at the end of the verbal form ( Veus-to? )
- the absence of ordinal numbers , starting from the number seven (thus, for " septième" one says Col che has fà set which makes seven)
- the Co-presence of three affirmative interjections (i.e., in three ways to say " oui"): If, (of the Latin form sic is , as in Italian); E (of the Latin form is , as in Portuguese according to the Brazilian use; Òj (of the Latin form hoc is , as in Occitan, or perhaps illud is , as in Francoprovençal and French)
- the absence of the sound " ch" (as in " champ" , or like " sh" in English), who is replaced normally by S (as in " soleil")
- the presence of the graphic combination SC (marked as in Czech press )
- the presence of its N (delivery like the termination of English gerund " going"), which normally precedes a vowel, as in lun-a
- the presence of the sixth Piedmontese vowel E , which corresponds to " e" in French
- the absence of phonological alternation which exists in Italian between the short consonants (simple) and the long consonants (double), for example, it. fata and fatta .
- the presence of its prosthetic E , which is interposed when two consonants meet giving place to a combination difficult to pronounce. Therefore, stèila becomes set ēstèile stars.
The Piedmontese one has various dialects which can differ enough from the " koiné" regional. The variations include/understand not only variations compared to literary grammar, but also a large lexical variety, since various zones preserve words of Germanic origin inherited the languages of the Francs or Lombards. There are also lexical contributions several languages, including the Maghrebian languages, but the majority of the more recent contributions come from France.
As elsewhere in Italy, standard Italian, selected like Official language by the States of Savoy as of 1563, dominates in the daily communication and is spoken by the population much more than the Piedmontese one. The use of the Piedmontese language was discouraged initially by the Royaume of Italy and, starting from the Second world war, officially to avoid discrimination against the immigrants of the South of Italy, which arrived many, especially with Turin.
In 2004, the Piedmontese one was recognized like regional language of Piedmont by the district council (assembled legislative regional elected), but without any recognition on behalf of the Italian central government. In theory, the Piedmontese one can be taught to the children at the school, but in practice that is not very frequent.
In this last decade one attended the publication of material of teaching for the pupils of the school, as well as of reviews intended for the general public. Also, of the courses for the adults who already left the school system were organized to catch up with wasted time. In spite of this progress, the current location of Piedmontese is rather serious, since, according to a recent investigation, in the last 150 years the percentage of the people who can write into Piedmontese decreased until approximately 2% of the population. On the other hand, the same investigation showed as the Piedmontese continuous one with being spoken by more half of the population, beside Italian. This result is confirmed by prestigious sources, which indicate the number of the speakers between 2 million (Assimil) and 3 million (Ethnologue.com ), on a population of 4,2 million inhabitants. The efforts made to obtain the recognition of Piedmontese as one of the official languages of the Winter Olympics 2006 of Turin failed.
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