The Présidial is a court of Justice of the Old Mode created at the 16th century
It is in January 1551 (old style) which the king Henri II of France, eager to reinforce its legal system, instituted by royal edict the présidiaux ones. It created of it one by Bailliage and seneschalsy. According to the edict of March 1551 (old style), 60 présidaux was created, including 32 within the competence of the Parlement of Paris. According to the needs and needs (financial resources of the state, annexation again territory, etc), the number of présidiaux reached the number of 100 in 1764.
Hierarchically placed between the Bailliage and the Parliament, the présidial ruled on the civil cases whose object was lower than 250 books tournaments in capital or 10 books tournaments of Revenue, as well as the businesses of call whose object lay between 250 and 500 books tournaments in capital or between 10 and 20 books tournaments of revenue. The sentence was carried out by provision notwithstanding the call.
The présidial was inefficient for the not easily estimable businesses in value or if the amounts were higher than the 500 books tournaments, for the businesses which touched with the State or the quality of the people, the businesses ecclesiastical, etc In these cases, the Bailliage remained qualified.
The présidial was also qualified for the criminal cases concouramment and by prevention with the provost S and criminal lieutenants if they issued before them or the same day.
Organization of a présidial
- President : office created in 1557, sometimes duplicated, removed in 1764 (attributions more honorary than real).
- Lieutenant-General : chief of the bailliage, often under the orders of the Baillif.
- criminal Lieutenant : judge criminal cases.
- particular Lieutenant criminal Assessor : assistant of the criminal lieutenant (office created in 1586 in certain présidiaux).
- Chancellor : responsible for the drafting and the authentification of the acts.
- To advise : judge. One of the advisers was in charge of the guard of the Sceau.
- To advise clerk : judge in charge of to take care on the rights of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction (one by présidial). Created in 1571.
- investigating Police chief inspector : charge created in 1515 in the Bailliage S (two by présidial).
- Secretary : charged with assisting the advisers.
- Controller : charged with assisting the advisers.
- Knight of honor : office created in 1691 to give one second career to the gentlemen not being able more to be used the king for the war.
The judges were to be at least new by présidial. But manpower could sometimes reach 30 according to the needs for the moment, and especially the needs for the royal Treasury since all the loads were monnayaient rather expensive. An important inflation of the prices was felt at the end of the 16th century.
If the creation of présidiaux were very indeed accommodated by the subjects of the king, it was not in the same way for the magistrates of the already existing courts which saw in these new spaces of justice an attempt to limit their capacities.
Like all the jurisdictions of the Old Mode, the présidiaux ones were removed in 1790 per decree of the National Assembly.
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