The piano is a polyphonic Musical instrument with keyboard and with struck cords , it is thus classified among the percussions and the cords. The sound is produced by the cords, tended on a rigid framework, above the sounding board. They are struck by hammers, covers of felt, actuated by the depression of the keys of the keyboard. The vibration of the cords is stopped by a choke when the key of the keyboard is slackened. A mechanical device, called “exhaust”, makes it possible the cord to freely vibrate, then during its evolution, a faster repetition of the note.
Its name comes from an abbreviation of Piano-forte, Italian phrase for soft-extremely , (piano in Italian) or strong (strong) which refers to the fact that the volume of the sound of the piano changes according to the force with which the keys are struck.
To listen to a small example of.
History of the piano
Invention of the pianoforteCreated at the beginning of the 18th century by the Italian Bartolomeo Cristofori, in Florence (Italy), under the name Pianoforte , the piano is born from the evolution from an instrument called Clavicorde (15th century) and Tympanon (the Middle Ages).
The date of manufacture of the first Piano-forte by Bartolomeo Cristofori is dubious, but an inventory carried out by the employers of Cristofori, the Médicis family, indicates the existence of an instrument of Cristofori in 1700. Cristofori will have built only one score of pianoforte before its death in 1731. There are only three still today, dating from the years 1720. Like the majority of the inventions, the piano was imagined starting from preceding technological innovations: the clavichord. The pianoforte is an instrument with whole share between the Clavicorde and the piano of the 19th century. It particularly benefitted from the centuries of work on the clavichord, which highlighted the methods to build a structure (of wood at that time), the sounding board, the rest and the keyboard. Cristofori was itself a factor of Clavicorde S and Clavecin S, well with the fact of the techniques and associated knowledge.
The fundamental discovery of Cristofori is the resolution of a fundamental mechanical problem of the pianos: the hammers must strike the cords but cease being in contact with them once struck, in order not to deafen the sound. Moreover, the hammers must turn over to their initial position without rebounding violently. Lastly, one must be able to repeat a note quickly.
The first instruments of Cristofori were built with fine cords and were much less sound than the clavichord or the harpsichord of its time. In two centuries one witnesses a complete inversion of the concept: weak tension of the cords/light sound body/hearing of the table - against strong tension of the cords/heavy sound body/hearing of the cord. Nevertheless, compared to clavichord, the piano strong of then allowed dynamic nuances and sounded much more extremely, with a longer behavior of the notes.
The new instrument of Cristofori remained little known until an Italian writer, Scipione Maffei, wrote an enthusiastic article in this connection, including a diagram of the mechanism. This article was distributed in a very broad way, and the majority of the factors of piano-strong of the following generation reflect the discoveries of Cristofori in practice after having read it.
One of these manufacturers was Gottfried Silbermann, more known like organ builder. The pianoforte of Silbermann were almost certified copies of those of Cristofori, with an important exception near: Silbermann invented the ancestor of the sustaining pedal, which makes it possible to raise at the same time all the chokes on the unit of the cords. Almost all the pianos built thereafter proposed this pedal.
Silbermann showed in Bach one these first instruments in the years 1730. Bach did not appreciate the instrument, finding that the acute notes had a too weak sound to allow a truly complete dynamics of the sound. If these considerations applied to a certain animosity on behalf of Silbermann to him, this last seemed to take account of these criticisms. Indeed, in 1747, Bach approved a more recent version of the instrument.
The invoice of pianoforte took its rise during the end of the 18th century, with the work of the school Viennese, cash among its members Johann Andreas Stein and his daughter Nannette Stein like Anton Walter. The pianos of style “Viennese” were manufactured without framework (only one wood stopping), two cords per note and of the hammers covered with leather. It is for such instruments that Mozart composed his concertos and his sonatas. Today, of the counterparts of these instruments are manufactured. The pianoforte of the time of Mozart had a softer sound and more clearly than that of the modern pianos, with a behavior of the more important note.
Development of the pianoforte
During the long period extending from 1790 to 1890, the Pianoforte of the time of sudden Mozart of very many changes which brought to current form of the piano 19th modern century then. This evolution of the instrument was caused the permanent need for the type-setters and the pianists of a more powerful sound, more constant. It was also allowed by the industrial revolution in progress, which placed at the disposal of the technological processes making it possible to produce steel cords of great quality and the precision of machining for the production of cast iron frameworks.
Progressively of this evolution, to play of the piano became increasingly tiring, the force necessary to insert the keys as well as the race of the key having increased. The tessiture of the pianoforte also increased it, passing from 5 octaves at the time of Mozart to 7 octaves 1/3 (even sometimes more) of the modern pianos.
During the first part of this period, the technological advancements brought on the pianoforte last much at the English firm of Broadwood, which then had already a great reputation for the powerful and majestic sound of its harpsichords. In the course of time, the instruments produced by Broadwood became larger, more powerful and built in a more robust way. The firm, which sent its piano-strong to Haydn and Beethoven, was the first to build thestrong one with a tessiture of more than 5 octaves: 5 octaves 1/5 in the years 1790,6 octaves in 1810 (what made it possible Beethoven to employ the notes added in its last works), 7 octaves in 1820. The factors Viennese followed this tendency. These two schools, nevertheless, are characterized by different mechanics: that of Broadwood being more robust, that of the more sensitive school Viennese.
Birth of the modern pianoDuring years 1820, the firms Erard (1780-1959) and Pleyel (Paris), developed the instrument and were made a stimulative competition. Chopin and Liszt, used their pianos. The Érard firm especially brought certainly the most important innovations to the point of view of the mechanics of the piano. Ignace Pleyel, musician, then his/her Camille son could surround himself by researchers acoustics experts, of scientists (Gustave Lyon, Auguste Wolf). They developed much sonority and were the first in France to adopt the crossing of the cords and the metal framework of a part, allowing the instrument more longer power and cords. Pleyel made build in Paris a famous concert hall bearing its name (which was refitted completely in 2006) and established the first electrified factory (it is the ancestor of the modern production in factory). In 1821, Sebastien Érard invented the double exhaust, which makes it possible a note to be repeated, even if the key did not return yet to his initial position. This mechanism is very advantageous for the fast play. Improved by Henri Herz about 1840, the principle of the double exhaust became finally the standard mechanism of the grand pianos, used by all the factors. (The Erard firm deposited in France and England, several hundreds of patents describing of the important improvements of the pianos) The decline of the Erard firm was partly has its will to preserve the parallel string instrument (or obliques) in which the homogeneity of the sound is better between the low ones and mediums. In spite of the tendency, Erard continued a long time to produce string instruments parallel and cross string instruments.
Other important innovations were brought during this period:
- the use of three cords instead of two for all the notes except most serious.
- the metal framework: located above the sounding board, it is used to contain the tension of the cords. The metal framework was the solution making it possible to resist whereas the cords became thicker, more tended and in greater number (the tension of the cords of a modern concert grand borders the 20 tons). The metal framework was invented in 1825 in Boston by Alpheu Babcock, completing the tendency to use metal parts more and more to reinforce the piano.
- the crossing of the cords, low cords, passing to the top of the white cords, and bearing on a separate Rest. This configuration distributes the tensions best but thus allows especially a bigger length of cords more a great power.
- hammers covered with felt: steel the cords, harder, require the use of a softer hammer in order to preserve a beautiful sonority. The hammers covered with compressed felt were introduced by the Parisian manufacturer Jean-Henri Pape in 1826 ; they from now on are used universally.
- the tonal pedal, invented in 1844 by Jean Louis Boisselot and improved by the factor Steinway in 1874.
The modern concert grand reached its current form in the neighborhoods of the beginning of the 20th century.
Since, only of the minor improvements were brought to the instrument. Recently however, the addition of a new pedal, called harmonic pedal by its inventor, woke up the interest of famous pianists such as Martha Argerich, Anne Queffélec or Georges Pludermacher.
The modern piano
The keyboard of the piano is composed of 88 keys (except exception). The 52 white keys correspond to the nonfaded notes, and the 36 black keys with the faded notes (Dièse or Bémol).
The keys of the piano are generally made in spruce or Tilleul, wood chosen for their lightness. The spruce is generally used for the pianos of good quality. Historically, the black keys were covered with ebony and the white keys of ivory. Obviously, the elephants from now on being protected, the synthetic matters replaced it. Nevertheless, of the ivory can always be obtained, but in limited quantity. Piano makers proposed plastics besides imitating the feeling and/or the aspect of the ivory to the fingers of the pianist. The bone is sometimes employed, or of the fossil ivory.
Certain keyboards reach 8 octaves. The additional keys can be generally hidden under a small lid in order not to disturb the pianists accustomed to the provision with 88 keys. Another solution suggested to avoid being disorientated is to color these additional keys in a reversed way. These notes are added mainly in order to increase resonance. Only very a small number of pieces use these notes.
Other pianos, known as of study , can have only 5 or 6 octaves. The very large majority of the partitions written for the piano suppose the use of a piano with 88 keys.
A octave on a keyboard corresponds to the distance between two successive notes of the same name, between C and C for example. The octave is more precisely a difference of 6 tons between two notes. On the keyboard, one obtains the octave by taking the 13th key (white and black included/understood) starting from the starting key.
The mechanismOne of the paramount mechanisms of the piano is the mechanism of exhaust: if the key and the hammer were directly bound, during the propulsion of the hammer towards the cord, this last would remain blocked on the cord, involving a smothering of its product. In order to avoid this deafening, the hammer is propelled via a pipe fitting of square, the stick of exhaust, which rocks behind when its horizontal part reaches a thrust (adjustable). Thus the hammer is free to set out again behind as soon as it struck the cord, which can then vibrate without being choked by the hammer.
To prevent that the hammer does not set out again without control in mechanics, it is blocked in the trap, interdependent part is for the upright pianos of the rest (basic part of the mechanism, not to confuse with the rest of Sounding board, which carries the cords); maybe for the grand pianos, of the key.
At the same time, the depression of the key actuates the choke, making it possible the cord to freely vibrate until the relaxation of the key.
The system which has just been described (present on all the pianos since the origin) has a défaut : as long as the key did not return entirely to its initial position, one cannot play the note again, which poses problem for the fast play.
In order to regulate this problem, Sebastien Érard invented the system called - wrongly - double exhaust. In this mechanism, one added an additional lever and a spring placed so as to push back the mechanism to the bottom and the hammer upwards. In this case, when the hammer escapes the trap by relaxation from the key, it is replaced at once above the stick of exhaust, allowing rejouer without same to have slackened the key entirely (if the spring is tended too much, it even arrives that the hammer strikes again only the corde : it is the phenomenon of grelottage). This mechanism is present on all the modern grand pianos, but very exceptionally on the upright pianos.
Obviously, there exists one mechanism of exhaust in these pianos, but the fact of being able rejouer quickly the note gives the impression which another mechanism takes the continuation. It would be to better speak about mechanism of repetition.
Pedals (called " lyre" on a grand piano)The pedals of a piano are generally composed of 2 or 3 pedals, possibly four.
On the right, the strong pedal is used to prolong the sound by preventing the chokes from once being pressed on the cords the slackened keys.
On the left, the soft pedal (or una twisted ) moves the keyboard of a Grand piano and the hammers so that there are nothing any more but two of the three cords of a note which are struck (or, on certain devices, that the three cords are struck with the less packed part of the hammers). On a upright piano, this pedal brings closer the hammers to the cords, which decreases the keying speed and reduces the touch. In both cases, the sound is less strong, in the case of the grand piano, the stamp also changes because of the oscillatory mode of the sound (conservation of energy) different with 2 cords instead of three. On the pianos Stuart and Sounds, the two various mechanisms of the soft pedal are present, there are thus four pedals in all, including two soft pedals.
On certain pianos, the pedal of the medium is a pedal of support (or of sostenuto , or tonal ) which makes it possible to hold the already supported notes at the moment when this pedal is inserted (and not all notes which is played as much as this pedal is inserted, as it is the case of the sustaining pedal), which makes it practical to hold of the agreement S. This pedal is more often present on the concert grands than on the pianos of study.
On certain upright pianos, the pedal of the medium is a silencing device , sometimes called silencing device of apartment being used to reduce the sound volume thanks to a felt being intercalated between the hammers and the cords. This silencing device does not play any part in interpretation but only in order to deafen the sound for not disturbing the entourage. In absence of pedal intended for this use, this silencing device is activated by a handle on which one draws, on the right, under the keyboard.
On other upright pianos, mainly American, the pedal of the medium is a sustaining pedal which functions only for the serious notes, generally starting from Mi2 until the first. On the Borgato pianos, there are two sustaining pedals moreover than one standard grand piano: for the low registers and for the acute ones.
On the pianos equipped with sensors MIDDAY and an additional synthetizer, the silencing device was removed, and the pedal of the medium then actuates a rotary bar furnished with rubber, which stops the travel of the hammers before they touch the cords, making it possible to exploit the only electronic part of the instrument, the touch remains closer to a piano than certain electronic keyboards, but the fact of having to stop the hammers more far from the cords involves a light disordered state of optimal operation, which degrades normal acoustics slightly or requires corrections of the intonation of the hammers (to reinforce the stamp to preserve it in spite of the less large propulsion of hammer). These systems are installed in general rather easily on any upright piano and even on grand pianos.
When it exists, the fourth pedal, known as harmonic pedal, has a double effect: when it is inserted with half remanence, the chokes are raised, and only the chokes of the played notes fall down to the relaxation of the keys; it is the reverse of the tonal pedal. When it is completely inserted resonance, it behaves like an ordinary sustaining pedal. This configuration allows, to insert in the middle of a sequence of general resonance a range articulated by the chokes.
CordsThe cords are made out of variable steel of diameter (thinner in the acute one). The low register cords are known as slipped by insofar as they are sheathed of a copper wire intended to weigh down them (if not, the piano should be well too long).
Each cord is tended between ankle (which is used to grant) and a point of hangs. Each cord is calculated in diameter and length to be with a given tension (approximately 80 kg) when it is granted has its fundamental frequency. it will have to then be sufficiently solicited (sufficient tension) to be able to preserve the energy which it receives at the time of the impact of the hammer, and the retransmettre more possible for a long time with the sounding board.
Beyond a certain tension, the cord becomes deformed (becomes plastic), and breaks (creep and point of rupture) in on this side, a certain elasticity is preserved. More important when the cord is new, (and causes of a faster dissension), this elasticity is dissipated gradually in a few years, then allowing a better stability of agreement. Certain processes are employed in factory and restoration to quickly decrease the elasticity (overpressure, heat), which is cause of the need for several annual agreements the first 2 years of the life of an instrument (see the booklets of the manufacturers). The too great stiffness of the old cords harms the stamp, from where interest to replace them on a piano of good quality.
There are several manners of attaching the cords to the point:
- Assembly independent of all the cords by ringlets;
- Assembly with horse, each cord making an outward journey and return;
- mixed Assembly, to prevent that the same cord serf with two different notes (the notes with triple cords are assembled with a cord in outward journey and return and a cord in ringlet).
None of these three assemblies is clearly better than the others.
Ankle is planted in a named piece of wood hard or multipli Sommier. The tension of the cords being of approximately 800 NR, the 250 cords of a piano exert a traction of several tons (20 tons on a modern concert grand).
The vibrating length of the cord lies between staples (or a bar of the framework, or a sillet) and the rest of sounding board.
The assembly by fasten is better in the low registers, the assembly by a rigid sillet is better in the acute ones, with the result that the majority of the pianos have a mixed assembly.
The cord has a well too small surface to produce an exploitable sound. It thus transmits its vibration to the sounding board by the rest, thanks to the elevated position of this last compared to fasten and to the points of hangs. This elevated position makes it possible the cord to press on the sounding board and to transmit more easily its vibratory energy while rigidifying the table, which improves the output (up to a certain point).
Many modern pianos are equipped with “maisonnettes” or “ladders duplex” in the acute ones and the high medium, they are small sillets located between the rest the point of hangs invented by Steinway, and which has the aim of creating an additional harmonic to enrich the acute sounds. Does their role lend has controversy, granted has a frequency of the note they reduce the energy of the cord by an effect of filter (?) slightly désaccordés, they add inharmonic brightness, which mixes with the spectrum already naturally inharmonic cords of pianos, the second solution thus seems more suitable…
Blüthner uses an additional cord added to each chorus called " system aliquot" , but not solicited by the hammer, and granted it precisely to the height of partial (exact name of the “harmonics” of the piano).
That Ci returning in resonance by sympathy adds a silky component to the stamp. An imbalance of phase is automatically present in the simultaneous vibration of the 3 steel cords of a note of piano, generating modifications in the stamp during the decrease of the sound.
The most serious notes have only one large cord per note (plaited catgut string), the intermediaries have two cords, acute the three, (two on thestrong old ones, from where the name of una twisted given to the soft pedal).
A piano with four cords per chorus was manufactured by Italian Borgato, the 4 cords allow (undoubtedly) a balance of phases 2 by 2, the sound is then powerful but the decrease of the remanent sound east can be more foreseeable in this case considering least imbalance, i.e. if a cord comes désaccorder has, it would be more frequent to have a wrong note than on a traditional piano with 3 cords per chorus.
The cords are struck by hammers, initially provided with a small head out of wooden covered with leather (pianoforte), currently provided with a famous person covered with tended felt.
The sounding boardThe sounding board is a thin plank of wood (ideally thinner at the edge than in the medium). It is reinforced by veins out of wooden (bars of sounding board). It is put in vibration via the rests, which transmit the vibration of the cords. It is certainly the part of the piano where the materials employed are of the greattest importance. In the pianos of quality, it is carried out in spruce (boards of spruce stuck between them by their edges). The spruce is selected for his high report/ratio resistance/weight. The best piano makers use a spruce with a wood with the fine grain and without defect; they make sure of more, that wood dried during one sufficiently long period before using it to make a sounding board of it. For the bottom-of-the-range pianos, the sounding board is made out of plywood.
The rests must be more in the possible center of the table, because the edges of the table are fixed and cannot vibrate. This is why, on the very large pianos, the cords do not reach the end of the table.
The modern piano requires a solid structure, in particular to support the important tension of the cords. This is why the materials used in the construction of a piano include/understand the sawn timber and of the thick metal parts. Thus, even a small upright piano can weigh in the neighborhoods of 130 kg, and a large concert grand of the type Steinway D weighs 480 kg. The largest current grand piano, Fazioli F308 weighs 691 kg.
Classically, the piano rests on large beams, named stopping . On the upright piano, they are located behind the instrument.
On the very old pianos (according to the marks and the models, to the neighborhoods of the years 1880 to 1910), there is not an other structure of reinforcement. They is what is called - wrongly, since they do not have a framework - pianos with framework wood.
On the modern piano, one started to add, on the side of the cords, small metal reinforcements, then of large parallel metal beams (on the pianos with parallel cords), then a cast solid cast iron framework, allowing the crossing of the cords. One also started has to cross the cords in 2 ranges (originally all the cords are parallel, vertically, or obliques). This “piano with cross cords” allows a bigger length of cords and better a distribution of the tension.
On certain pianos economic rights, the metal framework is made in such a way that there does not need more stopping (tallies monopiece).
The grand piano is surrounded by a named case girdles.
Maintenance and adjustmentsThe piano requires a great number of adjustments, in addition to its agreement, which is never but the adjustment of the tension of the cords.
To produce the sound of a note, an about sixty machine elements is concerned; all can have play, or require a three-dimensional adjustment. This work of adjustment is rather long and delicate and thus requires to be carried out by a tuner/ruler or repairer with the great know-how. Warning: some of the operations summarily described below can involve expensive repairs if they are badly included/understood.
Principal mechanical breakdowns
Technique of agreement
In theory the agreement of the piano is made according to the equal Tempérament.
The piano agrees according to a certain height of Diapason. Europe knew throughout its History a large variety of tuning forks, sometimes very distant from/to each other. At a certain time, one could name tuning fork 435 Hz the of the physicists (435 Hz), today one uses different musicians (440 with 445 Hz). Fast checking with the tonality of the telephone (approximately 440 Hz).
To grant a note, one uses a key of agreement, key provided with a square end (ancient pianos) or spangled with 8 branches, of a size corresponding to that of the heads of the ankles (3 sizes according to the marks).
The handling of the key is délicat : it is not a question to turn the key simply, because the various slopes of the cord migrate with a certain delay, and must be balanced between them, just like the various cords of the low registers to the acute ones.
It is necessary to turn the key while remaining well in the axis of ankle, without trying to incline it or twisting it, which has harmful effects on the behavior of agreement. For the majority of the pianos, it is necessary to approach the accuracy by bottom, by having very little to go up and by letting elasticity cord finish it work, to avoid storing in on-diapasonnement (length of cord between the sillet or fastens it and ankle it), an overpressure which would require only of désaccorder the piano thereafter. Indeed, to obtain a piano right on the blow is a thing, to obtain a piano which remains just a long time is another. For this purpose, especially if the instrument is not granted regularly, and in order to balance the tensions in the instrument, one should not hesitate to carry out before the agreement one, even two pinchings off or outlines: technique of rebalancing of the tensions generally employed to go up a piano with the tuning fork (and it is often preferable to make in two visits if the tuning fork is really too low, then take again the agreement at the end of a few weeks/days when the instrument works with the hundreds of additional kilos of tension applied). Generally, the maintenance of the agreement consisting in maintaining balance the tensions of the cords in three dimensions of space, one never should hesitate to make sufficiently often grant its piano. Ankle as for it holding with hard friction in a block in beech, bores itself on it even when the key is turned. In a diagrid in good state, one can leave ankle slightly twisted, the tension of the cord drawing it from sound with dimensions. This to some extent made a blocking which allows the best held of the agreement, and if loose blocking, the cord is slightly retightened, which is less perceptible than the reverse. It is the good behavior (the “chock”) of the ankles which is the longest gesture has to control for the apprentice tuner, the pianos reacting differently because of slips more or less good of the cords into the various elbows.
On a piano, the majority of the notes are produced by several cords vibrating in sympathy. That made that if two of these cords produce a frequency even slightly different, sonority is dreadful (this effect can be required for the piano “bastringue”). The agreement of the 2 and 3 cords together is called “unison”. The effects of phase between the cords, more or less long time between the impact (noise) of the hammer and the stabilization of the phases between them makes that various stamps can be obtained according to the way of granting unisons (it is rather about a sound energy utilization stressing more the attack or more on the remanent sound). From its striking, its listening, the tuner generates already a sound type of dynamics which is appropriate to him.
To find the accuracy of the partition (name given to the Tempérament), octave of reference which is used as model for all the extent of the piano, one starts to grant a cord according to the Diapason (in general it 440 or 442 Hz), by choking the other cords with a corner of agreement or a felt band inserted between the cords. Then one finds the height of the other notes of this part by granting Intervalle S and by comparing the Battement S of Harmonique S which these intervals generate. Once the partition carried out, the other notes are granted octave by octave at least on a cord, by carrying out ear of the evidence (comparisons of intervals between them) as for the accuracy. Then one releases another cord with each chorus (or unison), and one seeks to make disappear the beat. This beat is easy to recognize with the oreille : one hears a kind of “ OAU-OAU-oua ”. The closer one is to unison, the more the frequency of the beat decreases, until disappearing. The tested tuner takes care to manage the attack and the remanent sound of each note in order to provide a pleasant feeling and equalizes as well for the ear as for the fingers of the pianist (who “listens” much with his fingers!).
It should be stressed that with the difference of the other instruments with agreement by ankles like the Harpe and the Clavecin that the instrumentalist always grants itself, the pianists who can grant a piano are very rare. To grant a piano requires time, patience and requires a professional training. According to the state of the piano (variation to the accuracy, elasticity of the cords, importance of frictions: brake of the diagrid around the ankles, friction of the cord on its contact points), and the state of the tuner (experiment, state of form, requirement, possible harmful ambient noise, presence or absence of software tools), it is necessary to hope 40 minutes to two hours and half - except additional operations - to grant a piano. For a keyboard of 88 keys, one counts approximately 220 cords and as many ankles which all must be checked. It should be also underlined that an attempt at agreement by an amateur not trained on a very false piano, requiring an additional tension of one or two tons, can possibly show the break-in of the piano (irremediable rupture of the framework).
There exist software and apparatuses of agreement dedicated to the piano or credits. From their price and knowledge which they suppose, these tools is addressed to a public of experienced technicians and are not of any utility to amateurs; their interest is to be able to work in a noisy environment (store), to be able to recopy the same agreement from one technician to another on a concert grand to stabilize it as well as possible, to propose a large variety of stretching of acute according to the tastes of the pianist.
The place of the piano in the music
The piano and types of music
The piano is an instrument very much used in Western classical music. Many type-setters are also pianists, and use the piano like instrument of composition. The leaders are often pianists of formation (or violonists…).
The piano in the classical music
Many works, famous in their version for orchestra were written at the origin for the piano. Let us quote for example:
- Hungarian Dances of Brahms
- Tables of an exposure of Moussorgsky
- Gymnopédie S of Satie
- song of Spring of Mendelssohn
Contrary, much of works of the traditional repertory were transcribed for the piano. Let us quote, for example, the transcriptions of Liszt of the symphonies of Beethoven.
The repertory counts also many concertos for piano (Mozart, Beethoven), or two pianos, (sometimes four), even piano with another instrument.
Type-setters for piano (traditional)
The repertory for traditional piano starts with the end of the baroque: at the time of Jean-Sebastien Bach and Scarlatti, one knew yet only the Clavecin); the repertory develops with the pianoforte at the time traditional (Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart…).
It reaches maturity with Ludwig van Beethoven, and with the romantic time: Franz Schubert, Frederic Chopin, Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms…
More close to us, of the type-setters like Gabriel Fauré, Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Erik Satie, Isaac Albéniz, Rachmaninov, Moussorgsky, Scriabine… have truly made up for the type of instrument which we know nowadays.
Forms employed (traditional piano solo)
The sonata is the shape of the most widespread part for piano. It is usually in three movements: sharp, slow, sharp.
The kinds of compositions for the piano are mainly:
- at the time baroque (harpsichord): the Partita, the continuation, the Prelude, the Running away, the Toccata, the Passacaille, the Sonata, the Gavotte, variations,
- at the time traditional: the Sonata, the Minuet,
- at the time romantic, in addition to the sonata, appear freer forms: the night , the Scherzo, the Ballade, the Imagination, the Mazurka, the Waltz, the Rhapsody or of the parts without pre-established structure…
Models of pianosSome of piano-strong oldest have forms which are not used any more: the square piano or strong-piano for example, with its cords and its framework in a horizontal plane like the Clavichord. Its mechanics was similar to that of a upright piano. The square pianos were produced during the beginning of the 20th siècle ; their sound is regarded as being better than that of the upright piano. The majority did not have a framework, even if the last models included/understood more and more metal (outlines of framework). The piano giraffe, a contrario , had a mechanics similar to that of the grand piano, but with the cords laid out vertically like the Clavicytherium, the instrument, of high size, was rather rare.
Many old clavichords were preserved, and one can see some in the following museums:
- Dominicus Pisaurensis 1543 Museo de Lipsia Italy;
- Onesto Tosi 1568 Museum off fine arts Boston the USA.
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