It should not be confused the connotation that had the philosophical term of left with the neutral direction allotted at the time modern to the “Philosophe S”. With, one understood by Philosophes the philosophers materialists, encyclopedists (Diderot, D' Holbach, Helvétius) and, in a general way, the men of letters opposed to fanaticism (Voltaire) and in favor of the Lumières, in opposition to the defenders of the tradition (religious or university). Rousseau condemned these Philosophes under the infâmant name of clicks holbachic .
In a text of the Lumières, when one speaks about Philosophe , one thus designates generally only the hostile philosophers with the Catholicisme. Confusion between the direction of the time (restricted) and the modern direction (wide) can thus cause misinterpretations: Rousseau is a Philosophe with the modern direction of the word, but not a Philosopher. Diderot belongs, him, with the two categories.
- Age of Enlightenment
- Philosophy of the lights
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