A philosopher is a person practitioner the Philosophie, and since there are certainly as many manners of practicing it than there are philosophers, it is not easy to briefly describe what can be a philosopher; nevertheless, the most general idea that one can be made is undoubtedly that of a Homme which reflects on the world with its reason to become wiser, to better include/understand the direction of the life and to be thus happier.
The creation of the term is allotted to Pythagore which was not presented in the form of wise, but like liking wisdom .
Some aspects of the philosopher
Vocation of the baseOne of the most characteristic features is certainly that the philosopher made of philosophy a free activity to which it devotes his Vie, and which it is about a vocation. But this vocation means it also several manners: for example, philosophy supposes a certain kind of Vie, which one calls a Sagesse, or an art of living. The idea of vocation will be developed low in the article…
Moreover, the majority of the large philosophers were also scientists practitioner several disciplines. The whole of these disciplines enabled them to build a Représentation of the Univers comprising several more or less interdependent prospects (biological, Physique, philosophical, etc).
The philosopher in the Occidental cultureThe valorization of the Connaissance in the Western Culture makes that the philosopher is largely considered, wrongly or rightly, like the top of intellectual prestige. But this statute is also often called into question, and that for reasons which appear since the Antiquité, such as for example the instrumentalisation of philosophy by the opportunist ones, or because it happens that there are misunderstandings on until one can wait of philosophy. This prestige of philosophy also suffered from the development of the world Moderne and the professionalisation of this discipline.
In the modern world, philosophy can indeed appear useless, on the one hand vis-a-vis the Science S which sometimes claim to be the single source of the Connaissance, other share vis-a-vis the ideals of comfort and wellbeing of the democratic society, ideals supported by science (but for the benefit of part of the world population). The modern spirit is not thus perhaps compatible with the discipline of the spirit and the life required by a practice of the philosophy which does not seem profitable. Much more, with the eyes of the philosopher, the modern culture comprises many at the very least doubtful aspects.
The philosopher can thus seem either an antiquated vestige of completed Temps, or on the contrary like a defender of an authentic life threatened by the outrageous rationalization of the commercial companies and by the devalorization which makes undergo such systems of consumption to the individuals. Thus, if the place of the philosophers in the company is a problem raised since Plato, this problem is remarkable today by the force with which it is posed: it calls into question the legitimacy even of philosophy.
The philosopher in the company
Social role and policyAlthough it is often believed that the work of the philosopher can be used to answer questions concerning the Homme S in general, or the men of a company in search of values, it is not certain that is its task first. In particular, one can wonder whether a philosopher has vocation to intervene in debates of topicality, as if its real statute or not of thinker gave him a intellectual superiority on the other men. For example, on a debate concerning the company, in what a philosopher is it placed better than any Citoyen?
It is more probable than in Réalité a philosopher uses of his prestige to intervene in a debate. However, this not only appears philosophical very little, but can harm philosophy especially when this media capacity clarifies the opportunism of certain intellectuals. This last attitude is especially a continental tradition.
It thus seems that in a company a philosopher does not have particularly vocation to think the daily newspaper, the topicality, and all international cacophony. If it acts, it is rather like another, I. E. like Citizen or human being. However, if it is true that philosophy is also an art of living, it appears natural that the other men come to consult it in particular when the values are lost, and that nobody knows any more what it is value of the human actions. That arrives indeed when there are great upheavals Politique S. One thus explains the success of ethics for the hellenistic period, at one moment when the executives of the city crumble. Philosophy would be then the last hope.
But this design which requires of philosophy solutions against external and interior chaos (distresses, misfortunes, sufferings morals, etc) undoubtedly supposes a lapse of memory of the clean prospect for that which lives for the thought. Indeed, if the Art of living of the philosopher is a Sagesse, then this wisdom is, at least ideally, independent of the historical contingencies. It is thus only by accident that the philosopher is in the position of the “therapeutist” of the culture. But the problem, at least from this point of view, remains the same one: or the philosopher aspires to wisdom, and its feeling is that it does not belong to any company (it is cosmopolitan like the Stoïcien S); or he aspires to reform the men and the company, and in this case he is likely to see himself reduced to the role of moralist.
On the other hand, at certain periods of the History, the philosopher seems to have been able to play a part with his measurement, and in particular a more or less important political role. It is the case of some Présocratiques, which sought to support a union of the Greek cities that ceaseless conflicts led to their loss. In the same way as of the end of the 17th century takes shape a political philosophy which privileges the democracy, the tolerance and the sovereignty of the people: it is the philosophy of the Lumières. The word " Philosophe" there takes the new direction of " member of the philosophical Left ".
- Development of arts (Craft industry and Art): the accumulation of the purely practical knowledge leads to a systematization of the Connaissance S in the Science and philosophy; for example, the practical knowledge of the Egyptian land-surveyors allows the Géométrie like science.
As it is seen, the philosopher is far from being born thanks to a democratic system such as we conceive it today. It should not be forgotten that the ancient Démocratie is slave.
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