Philadelphia (in English Philadelphia , also called Philly ) is a city of the State of Pennsylvania, located at the North-East of the the United States, between New York and Washington DC. Sixth city of the country, Philadelphia counts close to: 1450000 inhabitants in the commune ( Philadelphia City ) and some: 5950000 inhabitants in his metropolitan surface (PMSA of Philadelphia Camden - Wilmington). Historical center, cultural and artistic major in the United States, Philadelphia is also large a industrial port on the river Delaware which throws in the Atlantic Ocean. Founded in 1682, it was at the 18th century the city most populated Thirteen colonies before becoming for a time the capital of the United States. But it was quickly eclipsed by New York and lost its statute of capital to the profit of Washington. Now, Philadelphia is the principal metropolis of the State of Pennsylvania, whose capital is Harrisburg, but also the seat of the Comté of Philadelphia. Lastly, the name of the city, chosen by William PEN, means “the city of the brotherly love”, because it was to be a small island of religious Tolérance.
Beginnings of Philadelphia
Before the arrival of the European , approximately: 20000 Amerindian S Lenapes, pertaining to the nation algonquine lived in the valley of the Delaware and the village of Shackamaxon was located at the current site of the district of Kensington, in the north of the downtown area.
The exploration of the valley of Delaware started at the beginning of the 17th century. The first colonists Swedish, Dutch and English asserted banks of the river in turn: the News-Sweden, founded in 1638, was annexed to the New-Country-Low in 1655. Then the area definitively passed in the British bosom in 1674.
In 1681, the King of England Charles II granted a Charte William PEN in exchange of the cancellation of a Dette that the government had with his/her father. By this document, the colony of Pennsylvania was officially founded. William PEN (1644 - 1718) was a Quaker English: it belonged to this dissenting religious group, persecuted in England, which rejected the ecclesiastical hierarchy and preached the equality, the Tolérance, the Non-violence. Pennsylvania quickly became a refuge for all those which were oppressed for their faith. William PEN thus left to America in 1682 and founded the town of Philadelphia. It wished that this city be used of port and political center. Even if Charles II had given him the property of it, William PEN bought the ground with the Amerindians in order to establish with them peaceful relations. It would have signed a treaty of friendship with the chief Lenape Tamanend in Shackamaxon in 1682.
Philadelphia was arranged according to a Checkerboard plan , oldest of the United States, with broad streets and five parks. But especially, William PEN wanted to make this city and Pennsylvania more human, by removing the Capital punishment for the flights and by guaranteeing the Freedom of worship. The name of the city, borrowed from the Φιλαδέλφια Greek (“brotherly love”), reflected this ambition. When William PEN returned from England in 1699 after a fifteen years absence, it found a city increased and which was placed just behind Boston by its population. Many a Immigrating S European S, English, Dutch, Huguenot S, indeed had arrived, attracted by the prosperity of the city and its religious tolerance. A first group of Germans settled in 1683 in the current district of Germantown. William PEN gave a charter to the city on October 25th, 1701 in order to create municipal institutions: a mayor, advisers and an assembly.
In second half of the 18th century, Philadelphia had become the most populated city Thirteen colonies (: 45000 inhabitants in 1780), exceeding Boston. It disputed even with Dublin the place of second city of the British Empire, apart from England”, in particular under the impulse of Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790). This Erudite, born in Boston, lived in Philadelphia starting from 1723 and was one of the founders of the Library Company off Philadelphia (1731), of the Université of Pennsylvania (1740) and of the american company of philosophy (1743). In 1752, it invented the Paratonnerre. In 1728, John Bartram created a Botanical garden, the first of this kind in North America. It is also at the XVIIIe century that Philadelphia became the principal center of edition of the Thirteen colonies: the first newspaper, The American Weekly Mercury , appeared in 1719. It is in 1790 that was inaugurated Law School off the University off Pennsylvania, the oldest school of right of the United States. Several artists of the city founded in 1794 Columbianum, which then formed the first company for the promotion of the Art schools.
The American RevolutionIn the Years 1770, Philadelphia became one of the principal hearths of the American Révolution. The Wire of Freedom, an organization of American patriots, were very active in the city: they resisted the tax measures imposed by the Métropole and encouraged the colonists with Boycott er the English goods.
Philadelphia was selected because of its central position within the Thirteen colonies to accommodate the First Congress continental which meets September 5th with the October 26th 1774 with the Carpenters' Hall . The Second Congress continental was held between 1775 and 1781, date of the ratification of the Articles of the Confederation. During the war of independence, this assembly organized the continental Armée, emits paper money and deals with the international relations of the country. The delegates signed the Déclaration of independence on July 4th, 1776. However, following the American defeat of Brandywine in 1777, the Congress had to leave the city. Several battles opposed the Americans ordered by George Washington to the British troops in Pennsylvania. After having invested Philadelphia in September 1777, the British concentrated: 9000 men with Germantown, that Washington does not succeed in overcoming. In June 1778, the English gave up Philadelphia to protect New York, exposed with the French threat. As of July, the Congress returned to Philadelphia. A constitutional Convention meets in Philadelphia in 1781 in order to write a Constitution. This text organizing the institutions of the new country, was signed in Independence Hall in September 1787. It is in the Congress Hall that was elaborate the Déclaration of the rights in 1790, the first ten amendments with the American Constitution. The continental Congress settled in New York in 1785, but, under the pressure of Thomas Jefferson, he moved in Philadelphia in 1790, which made office during ten years of provisional capital of the United States, while Washington D.C was in building site.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Philadelphia knew important a economic advancement thanks to the agricultural and mining richnesses (coal) present in its back-country; the construction of roads, channels and railways made it possible the town of maintain its row in the Industrial revolution. The textile, the clothes industry, the Metallurgy, the manufacture of paper and the railway material, naval construction, the agro-alimentary one were principal industries of the 19th century. Philadelphia was also a financial center of first importance. During the American Civil War (1861 - 1865), the factories of the city provided the armies of the Union in military material and various resources. The hospitals also played a part by accommodating many casualties at the time of the conflict.
Because of the mechanization of agriculture in the South of the United States, of the thousands of Afro-Américain S started to migrate towards north and Philadelphia became one of the privileged destinations of this surge. As in other American cities, the years which preceded the Civil war were remembered by violences against the immigrants, as at the time of the riots anti-catholics from May-June 1844. With the Act of Consolidation ( Act off Consolidation ) of 1854, the municipality of Philadelphia annexed several peripheral districts, Township S and districts. This decision made it possible to make correspond the limits of the city with that of the county and to improve management of the urban problems. However, the republican municipality continued to be corrupted and the frauds and the intimidations at the time of the elections were frequent.
In 1876, Philadelphia accommodated the first World Fair organized on the American ground (the Centennial International Exhibition in English). It commemorated the centenary of the Déclaration of independence and was held in the Fairmount Park, close to the Schuylkill River. It attracted some: 9789392 visitors. The majority of the buildings of the exposure were preserved by the Smithsonian Institution to Washington D.C. Among the innovations which were shown with the public, one can quote the telephone of Alexander Graham Bell, the typewriter of Remington, the Ketchup Heinz or the Root beer.
Changes of the XXe century
Thousands of immigrants come from Germany, from Italy, Ireland and Europe of the East came to work in industries of the city to the turning of the 20th century and gathered in distinct districts. During the First World War, the arrival of the Afro-Americans fleeing the Racial segregation of the South modified the structure of the population. With the development of the rail-bound Transport then Subway in 1907, and car, the middle-classes started to leave the downtown area to reside in suburbs. The first Gratte-ciel S made their appearance and the Pont Benjamin Franklin was built. After the Great Depression, Philadelphia was known for the strength of sound Syndicalisme and for its multiples Grève S. the Chômage strongly increased and was maintained with an high level in the Années 1930, in spite of the jobs created by the Works Progress Administration. It was necessary to await the Second world war so that the city left the crisis, thanks to industries of the Armement.
In 1950, Philadelphia reached its demographic apogee, with a little more than two million inhabitants; the residences were then often insufficient and unhealthy. In the Years 1960, racial riots burst, at the time of the movement for the civic rights ( Civil Rights Movement in English). The social problems worsened with the rise of unemployment, drug and the violence of the gang S. the white middle-classes fled the center towards the surrounding counties: thus the city lost more than 13% of its population in the Années 1970.
The municipality adopted a news Charte in 1951 giving more capacities to the mayor. The mayor Joseph Clark inaugurated a policy of urban renewal: road and system improvement of transport (SEPTA, 1965), Rehabilitation of the habitat, creation of shopping malls and parks. But the city was then in extreme cases of the Banqueroute at the beginning of the Années 1990, following the example other big cities of the east coast like New York, which underwent a crisis and a similar situation of bankruptcy. Since, the situation of housing and employment improved in several districts, but violence always remains with an elevated level.
Philadelphia is in the North-East of the the United States, in the industrial area of the Manufacturing Belt , about with very the Latitude as the Balearic Islands or than Naples in Italy of the south. It belongs to a space urbanized uninterrupted, the BosWash, which goes from Boston to north to Washington DC to the south. The city is prided to be with less than 100 miles of New York, 99 exactly (approximately 160 km). The city is between the mountains the Appalachian Mountains in north and the west, and the Atlantic Ocean in the south and the east.
Philadelphia is built in the south-east of the Pennsylvania and the suburbs developed partly on the New Jersey towards the east, thanks to the bridges Benjamin Franklin and Walt Whitman. The downtown area extends mainly on Right Bank from the river Delaware, of which it orders the Estuaire located at the south. The river Schuylkill is thrown in Delaware in the south of the city: it is on this site of junction that it is developed the shipyards. Other less important rivers cross the city: Cobbs Creek, Wissahickon Creek and Pennypack Creek.
According to the Office of the census of the United States, the city has an total surface area of: 369.4 km ², of which: 349.9 km ² of ground and: 19.6 km ² of water levels, are: 5.29% of the total. The territory of the commune ( Philadelphia City ) is 3,5 times wider than that of Paris. The agglomeration occupies a site of river Plaine flat and relatively low. Average altitude is of 13 meters above the sea level. The metropolitan zone of Philadelphia, which occupies the Vallée of Delaware, account nearly 6 million inhabitants.
Philadelphia knows a climate of Eastern frontage of continent. The Précipitation S are rather regularly distributed over all the year, with eight to eleven days of rain per month and a total of: 1068 mm over the year. It falls on average 52 cm of snow per annum. The temperatures of July vary on average between 21 °C and 30 °C. The highest recorded temperature was of 41 °C the August 7th 1918. The autumn and spring are relatively soft, but short. The winter arrives quickly and can be accompanied by cold waves ( cold waves ) which bring snowstorms (blizzard). The low average temperature for January is -4 °C, the high average of 4 °C. The lowest temperature recorded was of -24 °C the February 9th 1934.
Town planning and districts
See also: List of the districts of Philadelphia
The downtown area (Center City) follows an orthogonal plane since its foundation; it forms a quadrilateral delimited in the east by the Delaware in north by Vine Street, the west by the Schuylkill and in the south by South Street. The center of this quadrilateral is occupied by the Town hall. This building is in the axis of two streets, Broad Street and Market Street, which are cut to right angle to the manner of a Cardo and a Roman Decumanus. The East-West directed streets, bear names of trees. The Benjamin Franklin Parkway, kind of Fields-Élysées of Philadelphia, is a radial avenue which connects the Town hall to the Fairmount Park and with the Philadelphia Museum off Art. The historical center is in the east, the center of the businesses in the west. The district of Center City counts many cultural institutions, galleries and shopping malls.
The town-planning of the end of the 17th century laid out four places with the corners of Center City: Washington, Rittenhouse, Logan and Franklin Square S. Fairmount Park Commission gathers a whole of public gardens dispersed in the agglomeration for an total surface area of: 3723 Hectares is 37,23 km ². The main thing, Fairmount Park, is along Schuylkill River and from Wissahickon Creek, to the North-West of Center City, and extends on 17 km ², that is to say five times the surface of the Central Park of New York and twice the Bois de Boulogne with Paris.
Around the downtown area are Ghetto S (West Philadelphia, Camden) as well as the university district (University City, in the west of Schuylkill). This first aureole also consists of intermediate and mixed districts, which have each one their identity. The majority correspond to the old villages or cities of the Comté of Philadelphia before their annexation by the city. The districts of middle-classes and easy extend enough far from the downtown area and are connected to him by a system of fast tracks and suburban trains.
Evolution and distribution| valign=" top" | |}
Sixth city of the country, Philadelphia counts: 1448394 inhabitants in the commune ( Philadelphia City ) and: 5951797 inhabitants in his metropolitan surface (PMSA: Philadelphia Camden - Wilmington) in 2006.
In the middle of the 18th century, Philadelphia was the most populated city Thirteen colonies British. In spite of its spectacular population growth, it did not cease moving back in the classification of the American Villes. It is exceeded by New York at the end of the 18th century, by Chicago in the years 1880 and Los Angeles in the years 1950. The strongest increase in the Philadelphian population took place at the end of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century: the number of inhabitants doubled between 1880 and 1920, thanks to the European Immigration. After a demographic apogee in 1950 (two million inhabitants), the city was depopulated following the social problems: the white middle-classes left the commune to settle in the peripheral counties. Between 1950 and 2000, Philadelphia lost more: 480000 inhabitants. In spite of the policy of revitalization of certain districts and the Gentrification in progress, the downward trend continues (- 4,5% between 1990 and 2000), but at less strong intervals.
Ethnic and social characteristics
The ethnic distribution is characterized by the fact that no group is majority: the proportion of the White is weak (45%) compared to the national average and it tends to decrease. In 2005: 183329 people state to have Irish ancestors: 121397 of the Italian ancestors and: 106339 of the German ancestors. These three communities, formed by the descendants of the migrants of the years 1880-1920, print their mark with the cultural life of Philadelphia.
The Afro-américain S form an important community (43,2% of the total) and in increase. This group concentrates in the sectors located at the west and the north of the downtown area. The share of the Latino S is weaker (8,5%) that in the remainder of the country, but their manpower increases. The Jamaican community , with the second national rank, and Porto Rican (: 97689 in 2005 There remains largely higher than the national average (13,3%). The Revenu annual means per capita is of: 19140 $. Among the big cities of the megalopolis, Philadelphia is poorest. The rate of Unemployment, with 5,7% of the Active population in 2007, is higher than the national average.
For the Criminality, Philadelphia is in the sixth place of the cities of more than: 500000 inhabitants most dangerous of the United States. In 2004,377 murders were listed, primarily in the Ghetto S, that is to say a rate of 25,6 for: 100000 inhabitants, whereas the national average is of 6,9 and that of New York of 6,6. In 2006, the number of the homicides amounts to 406.
The percentage of graduates of the university is weaker than in the remainder of Pennsylvania. However, the number of students is important (: 107519 in 2005, is 13,5% of the total population), because of the presence of many establishments of higher education on the territory of the commune. The Public services, municipal or private provide in the majority with employment. The industrial sector employs 8% of the active population, that is to say a little more: 45000 people in 2005.
Administration and policyThe limits of the county and the town of Philadelphia are the same ones since the Act off Consolidation of 1854. All the political offices are provided by the municipality since 1952.
The city is directed by a Maire elected for four years. John F. Street occupies this station since 2000. The mayor cannot ensure more than two consecutive mandates. To be represented, it must await at least a legislature. Since 1952, all the mayors of Philadelphia without exception are democratic and are rather favorable to a public intervention in favor of the underprivileged social categories: thus, the municipality does not impose any local tax on the products of first need like the soap.
The Municipal council ( Philadelphia City Council ) is the body deliberating and legislative on the city. It counts 17 members: ten of them are elected in the districts, the seven others represent the town suit and are elected by all the citizens. The President of the Council is chosen by the advisers; since 2000, this station is occupied by the democrat Anna Cibotti Verna, known for its positions progressists. The mandate of the advisers is four years, unbounded of renewal. The municipal council meets once per week in public with the Town hall. The decisions are made in the majority. The mayor can oppose his right of Veto. But the council can exceed this right by a vote in the majority of two thirds. In 2005, the municipality employed approximately: 30000 people.
The ordinary Court of Appeal of the county ( Philadelphia County Runs Common Pleas off) is the court of justice for Philadelphia. It is financed by the municipal funds and functions with the employees of the city. The court of the road Contravention S deals with the Infraction S with the highway code. Although the capital of the State of Pennsylvania is with Harrisburg, it happens that the supreme court, the superior court and the court of the Commonwealth hold of the meetings in Philadelphia. The judges of these authorities are elected by the whole of the citizens of the city.
Between the American Civil War and the middle of the 20th century, the municipality was dominated by the Republican party. After the Great Depression of the years 1930, the democrats progressed and ended up gaining the town hall in 1952. With the elections presidential of 2004, the democratic candidate John Kerry gained 80% of the votes in Philadelphia. Lastly, Philadelphia sends four deputies to room of the representatives of the American Congrès; in 2007, they all were democratic. With the fall of the population since the middle of the 20th century, the number of electoral constituencies, and thus the number of representatives in Washington, passed from six to four.
18th century, Philadelphia played a pioneer part in the political but also economic birth of the country. Also, the founded traditional sectors with the colonial time, remained dynamic and always make the reputation of the city: the edition and the Printing works, the press, the Bank, the trades related to health are some examples.
At the 19th century, the exploitation of the coal of the mountains the Appalachian Mountains, the rise of the railroads and transport by water way, placed Philadelphia at the head of the industrial Métropole S, in the middle of the Manufacturing Belt. Industries of the Industrial revolution and the agro-alimentary one made the prosperity of the city then (textile Métallurgie, , Pétrole, Naval construction, Conserverie, Pisciculture). The geographical location of the city, between New York and Washington DC, attracted many haulage companies. After 1945, with the decline of these traditional industries which affected Manufacturing Belt, Philadelphia entered a phase of Economic crisis and social. Many factories had to close, be restructured or to delocalize towards the South and the West of the country, even abroad. Today, Philadelphia diversified its activities and started its economic revival. Unemployment drops since 1993 and new Gratte-ciel leave ground in the district of the businesses. Philadelphia remains a decisional and financial center of first order in the North-East of the United States.
Industries and portThe tertiary sector became prevalent of number of employment and in creation of richnesses; however, the economy of the city still partly rests on the agro-alimentary heavy industries and . The other industrial activities are the metallurgy, the Confection, the Papeterie, industries of equipment (office equipment, of communication, data processing). Many a Raffinerie petrochemical S and industries concentrates along the Delaware. The shipyards Aker Philadelphia (formerly Kværner Philadelphia Shipyard , closed in 1995) continue to build cargo liner S and Tanker S. They undergo nevertheless foreign competition, in particular Asian. The port, managed by Regional Philadelphia Authority Port, is dominated by the oil traffic (57 million tons in 1996). It also imports fruits, iron, steel and paper. The wearing of Philadelphia, which occupies already the first place on the Atlantic coast for the various goods, envisages to increase its traffic of Conteneur S.
ServicesThe saving in Philadelphia is dominated today by the Tertiary sector. The main activities are related to health (hospital, insurances), with transport (SEPTA employs more: 9000 people, US Airways has a Hub, Amtrak), at the finance departments and telecommunications (Verizon, Comcast Corporation) and at the federal institutions.
Several companies of regional or national scale have to them Head office in Philadelphia: Aramark Corporation, the First Union National Bank, Advanta (banks), the companies CIGNA and Lincoln National Corporation (insurances), Comcast (media), Sunoco (oil), Rohm and Haas and FMC Corporation (chemistry), GlaxoSmithKline (medicinal products), Pep Boys (automobile equipment).
The first three employers of the city are the Federal government more (: 30000 employees in 1999.
Higher educationPhiladelphia is an important university town which counts several thousands of students and many establishments of higher education. The university campuses take part in the cultural dynamism of the agglomeration: in the district of University City in the west of the downtown area, 21 museums and art galleries are opened with the public. The universities and the research centres work in connection with the principal employers of the city: thus higher education is particularly points some in the sectors of chemistry, sciences, health and arts.
Founded in 1964, the Community College off Philadelphia proposes 70 diplomas different and a vast panel of formations active from arts to sciences while passing by the economy. It counts some: 38000 students (2007), which makes of it the greatest establishment of higher education of the city. It counts currently more: 19800 students and, with his hospital, it is the second employer of the city: some go up at the time colonial and are built out of red bricks in the federal Style géorgien or (Congress Hall, Independence Hall, Old City Hall, Carpenters' Hall, Library Hall, Christ Church, St George' S United Methodist Church…) ; others were set up during or after the American Révolution and adopt a neo-classic style (First Bank off the United States, Second Bank off the United States, Merchants' exchange…). The Independence Hall (1732-1753) is one of the rare American buildings classified on the list of the world heritage of UNESCO. The historical park also proposes many museums: National Constitution Center, Museum off the American Philosophical Society, Beautiful Liberty Center, New Hall Military Museum… Several houses of the XVIIIe century are dispersed in the district: Todd' S House (1775), Betsy Ross House (1740), Powell House (1765-1766) and especially celebrates it Elfreth' S Alley (1720-beginning of the XIXe century)
The other monuments and museums are dispersed in the downtown area. The Town hall, whose construction started in 1871, adopts a style second empire, inspired of the Louvre, with mansard-roofed roofs . The temple maconnic rises opposite the Town hall: it shelters the big room of Pennsylvania, one of oldest of the country. Several cultural institutions gather around Logan Square: the cathedral Saint-Pierre-and-Paul (1864), the Franklin Institute, the natural Academy of Science and the Free Library. One can also note the Benjamin Franklin Parkway inspired by the Fields-Elysées to Paris and which off connects Logan Square to the Philadelphia Museum Art.
The academy of music was drawn by the French architect Napoleon Brown the (1857). Lastly, the Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial (1775-1776) and Gloria Dei Church (the oldest church of the city) are in south-east.
The city counts very many museums which reflect well the characteristics of a city which glorifie its past while being turned by the future: the natural history musea with scientific vocation (Academy off natural sciences, Franklin Institute, Mütter Museum, Wagner Free Institute off Science) and the places of exposure of contemporary art (Abington Art Center, Institute off Contemporary Art) testify some:
One can also quote the presence in the suburbs of Philadelphia of the Fondation Barnes which shelters a single collection in the world of share its quality and one of the most important private collections of impressionist fabrics (including 180 Renoir and 60 Matisse), and modern, competing with the largest world museums.
Modern architectureFor a long time, the city did not have a Gratte-ciel S, because of a tacit rule which prohibited to build buildings higher than the statue of William PEN, located at the top of the tower of the Town hall. In 1987, the One Liberty Place, whose architecture is strongly inspired by the Chrysler Building, was the first building to exceed the 200 meters in height: at the time, the superstitious ones affirmed that this construction was the cause of the problems which assigned the sporting teams of the city (curse of Billy PEN). Today, Philadelphia has, like the other American metropolises, its CBD, and counts five scrapes-ciels high of more than 200 meters. The many projects of turns testify to the economic rebirth of the city and, when it is completed, the Comcast Center will be the largest skyscraper of the east coast, apart from Chicago and of New York.
Art is also exposed in the many galleries of the city, but also in its parks and its streets. Since 1991, each first Friday of the month, in the district of Old City, the art galleries open their doors until late the evening and propose various exposures. The statues of the great personalities of Philadelphia are omnipresent: that of Benjamin Franklin (on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania) or that of William PEN (at the top of the Town hall) are some examples. The sculpture COILS Robert Indiana (1978) is one of the symbols of the city. It refers to the nickname of the city: “the city of the brotherly love”. A counterpart of this work is also on the campus of the Université of Pennsylvania and in a street of New York. The Clothespin of Claes Oldenburg (1976) is located in front of the Town hall. Lastly, 2.500 Fresque S decorate the walls of the buildings. In the years 1990, in order to dam up the proliferation of the Graffiti S, the municipal council decided to yield some walls to the tagueurs. Several frontages became at once grounds of expression for the Graffeur S and the painters.
The black Muslim community gathers in the district of Walnut Hill which also comprises several Mosquée S. the city several Buddhist centers and associations , in particular in the Chinatown.
See also: List Philadelphian famous
Philadelphia is the cradle many American actors: Grace Kelly (1929-1982), Bill Cosby (1937-), Richard Gere (1949-), Kevin Bacon (1958-), Ryan Philippe (1974-) is most famous. Several American artists are also originating in the city: Rubens Peale, Thomas Eakins, Alexander Calder, Charles Semser, etc Noam Chomsky, Richard To ballast and the Famille Guggenheim testifies to the importance of the Jewish community of European origin in Philadelphia.
MediaPhiladelphia has a long tradition of Journalisme: the press was already active with the XVIIIe century with The American Weekly Mercury and the Pennsylvania Gazette . Today, the two principal newspapers of the city are the Philadelphia Inquirer and the Philadelphia Daily News , which belong to the group Philadelphia Media Holdings L.L.C. Been based in 1829, the Philadelphia Inquirer , older daily newspaper still published in the United States is the third. Distributed to more: 300000 specimens in week, its journalists received eighteen Prix Pulitzer. The Philadelphia Daily News is a more recent Tabloïd and has a more modest pulling approximately (: 114000 specimens).
The first license granted to radio was allotted to the Saint Joseph' S University in August 1912. The first commercial radio (WIP) made its appearance in 1922, followed soon by WFIL, WOO, WPHT and WDAS. Today, the most popular radios are WBEB, KYW Newsradio and WDAS-FM. There exist other radios specialized in the sport (WPEN) or political debates (WNTP). Other stations are addressed to the public specific ones (WURD for the Afro-Americans, WUBA for the Hispanic ones). Founded in 1975, WQHS is diffused since the campus of the Université of Pennsylvania.
The first television channel of the city was born in the Années 1930: experimental station W3XE (current KYW-TV) was then the property of Philco Corp. Other chains transfer the day in the years 1970 (WCAU-TV, WPVI-TV, WHYY-TV, WPHL-TV and WTXF-TV). It is in 1952 qu ' took place on WFIL (current WPVI), the first of the emission Bandstand , which became later American Bandstand animated by Dick Clark. WYBE is a public channel which diffuses programs in foreign language and aiming at the ethnic minorities and the homosexual ones.
Professional sportsPhiladelphia has a sporting long tradition: thus, Olympic Town Ball Club was the first club of Town ball of the country (1832). The town ball was a play of ball and the ancestor of the baseball. This last, called at the time “New York Range”, supplanted the town ball only in the years 1860 in Philadelphia. Pythians constituted the first black team of baseball of the United States.
Philadelphia belongs to the 13 cities which have four teams belonging to the major leagues of the professional sports: the Eagles of Philadelphia for the National Football League, the Flyers of Philadelphia for the National league of hockey, the Phillies of Philadelphia for the Major League Baseball and the 76ers of Philadelphia for the National Basketball Association. There exist other professional teams or amateurs in other sports like the Cricket or Lacrosse.
Philadelphia accommodates each year various competitions: the PEN Relays, Stotesbury Cup, the Marathon of Philadelphia and a cycle race (International Philadelphia Championship). The Tournoi of Philadelphia is a female tennis tournament of professional circuit WTA. It is organized each year at the end of October. It is in Philadelphia that the finale of NBA All-Star Range 2002 was held.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is the organism in charge of the Public transport in Philadelphia and in the counties of suburbs (Bucks, Chester, Delaware and Montgomery). It manages the Métro, the drunk, the Trolleybus and the Tramway S of the urban surface. The subway functions since 1907; it is the older third of America. Philadelphia still has several tram lines (Girard Avenue Line, Route 15).
The station of the 30e Rue ( 30th Street Station ) is the principal railway station of the company Amtrak on the north-eastern corridor. It makes it possible to serve the majority of the big cities of the east coast (Boston, New York, Baltimore, Washington DC). To the regional level, it is connected to Pittsburgh, Harrisburg and Atlantic City. This true node of communication gives access the lines of Amtrak, the New Jersey Transit and the SEPTA. PATCO proposes connections with Eastern bank of Delaware and the communes of the agglomeration located in the New Jersey.
AirportsTwo airports serve Philadelphia: the International airport of Philadelphia (PHL), located at the extreme south of the city, and the Northeast Philadelphia Airport (PNE), which deals with the General aviation and which is in the North-East. The international airport is a hub for the company US Airways and proposes interior flights and towards the foreigner. With more than 31,7 million passengers in 2006, it is the 16th American airport and the 28e on a world level. But it is classified in the 10th world place for the traffic (: 515809 movements in 2006).
The Delaware River Port Authority ensures the management of four bridges on the Delaware: the Walt Whitman Bridge (I-76), the Benjamin Franklin Bridge (I-676 and Route 30), the Betsy Ross Bridge (Road 90) and the Commodore Barry Bridge (Road 322). There exists a Ferry which also makes it possible to cross Delaware towards the New Jersey.
Philadelphia is one of principal the hubs for the company of bus Greyhound Lines. The terminal is in 1001 Filbert Street in Center City. In 2005, this last was the third of the country behind the Port Authority Bus Final of New York and the drunk Los Angeles final. Other haulage companies are also present: Bieber Tourways, Capitol Trailways, Martz Trailways, Peter Pan Drunk Lines, Susquehanna Trailways, as well as the buses of the New Jersey Transit.
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