The phasmatodea ( phasmoptères in French) are an order of Insecte S of the subclass of the Ptérygote S in the superorder of the Orthoptéroidé S.
Vernaculairement called “ phasmes ”, it counts several thousands of species (estimate of: 2500 with: 3000 species). Approximately 300 are currently in breeding (or were high). One finds three species on the metropolitan French territory, primarily in the southern half of the country, and along the Atlantique littoral:
Clonopsis gallica : the Gallic Phasme (southern half of the country as far as Brittany)
- Leptynia hispanica : the Spanish Phasme (Mediterranean)
- Bacillus rossius : the Phasme of Rossi (Mediterranean)
The remainder of the population is located in the tropical forests and equatorial of Asia, Oceania and America. They are rarer in continental Africa. One finds in particular many species in the Overseas departments, in particular in French Guiana.
The phasmes are herbivorous insects, more precisely Phytophage S, being thus in bottom of the food chain but cases of cannibalism in captivity are also observed. Their principal predatory are the Oiseau X, small the Mammifère S (Lémuriens, some rodent…), carnivorous insects (Mantes nuns, ants, Bug S…), and the Spider S.
To survive, they are based in their environment while imitating to perfection of the brushwood, of the dead or green sheets, even of the Lichen S: it is the Mimétisme. This one is thorough until in their way of being driven, since they move slowly, by jolts, as a branch ballottée by the wind. The majority can also remain perfectly motionless during hours. Certain species lay out moreover means of defense, and are equipped with prothoracic glands secreting various toxic substances. Those raise sometimes colors Aposématique S, not merging in the environment like their cousins quoted previously.
The phasmes lay eggs in a regular way as from the moment when they are at the adult stage, the females lay on average 2 to 3 eggs per day (strongly variable according to the species). The reproduction can be sexuée, but can also be done by thélytoque Parthénogénèse, without fecundation, giving birth only to females. Thus, for certain species, no male was still found, its inexistance being possible.
Diagnosis of the phasmes
The phasmatodea is an order which, in addition to the natures common to tax with higher row, gathers the following common characters:
oral Apparatus of crushing type (herbivores), they are the phytophagous ones.
- Junction head-thorax very marked, with large an articular capactity of circumduction.
- Thorax divided into three parts (prothorax, mésothorax, métathorax) in a distinct way.
- Abdomen divided into 10 segments
- Junction abdomen-thorax far from mobile, at certain families the first segment abdominal is amalgamated with the métathorax
- Présence of a furca on the ventral part of the thorax
- 5 tarsi, and 4 for the Timemidae
- Pattes of the walker type, generally long and hails, but this is not a general character (against example of the kind Eurycantha )
- Capacité of autotomy (section reflex of a leg), and of regeneration of the members to the wire of the moults during the larval stages
- Présence of a body préoperculaire on the 7th abdominal segment
- Capacity of parthenogenesis (except some kinds, e.g. Heteropteryx , Haaniella )
- regular Laying (the eggs are laid day after day all along the adult life, and not laid all in group)
- In a general way, the phasmes is an order of mimetic insects, imitating the nature which surrounds it. They can thus resemble lichen or wood ('' Eurycantha '' spp.), of the green heart brushwood or brown ( Clonopsis gallica ), or of the sheets ('' Phyllium '' spp.)
- They has a development of the type Hémimétabole, and more precisely Paurométabole.
Of the Phasmatodea account 3 S, the detail of the S and S is given below:
1. sub-order of the Anareolatae
- family of the Diapheromeridae
- subfamily of the Diapheromerinae
- subfamily of the Lonchodinae
- subfamily of the Necrosciinae
- subfamily of the Pachymorphinae
- subfamily of the Palophinae
- family of the Phasmatidae
- subfamily of the Cladomorphinae
- subfamily of the Eurycanthinae
- subfamily of the Phasmatinae
- subfamily of the Platycraninae
- subfamily of the Tropidoderinae
- subfamily of the Xeroderinae
- family of the Aschiphasmatidae
- subfamily of the Aschiphasmatinae
- subfamily of the Korinninae
- family of the Bacillidae
- subfamily of the Bacillinae
- subfamily of the Heteropteryginae
- subfamily of the Pygirhynchinae
- family of the Heteronemiidae
- family of the Phylliidae
- subfamily of the Phylliinae
- family of the Pseudophasmatidae
- subfamily of the Pseudophasmatinae
- family of the Timematidae
- subfamily of the Timematinae
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