See also: Peuls
The speakers of this language are called " haalpulaar' en" (" haalpulaar" in the singular) with the Senegal and south of the Mauritania, this designation deriving from the verb " haalde" , which means " parler". These people necessarily do not belong to the ethnos group peul and very often speak a second language.
Other namesThe peul is called in peul pulaar , pular or fulfulde - even if these words indicate respectively the dialect of the Fuuta Tooro (Senegal and south of the Mauritania), the dialect of the Fuuta Jalon (Guinea), and those of Eastern areas (type Adamawa with the Cameroun), Mali and Niger.
One meets also other C-Ws communication in French, such as poular or peulh .
The name " peul" is a loan of the Wolof. The words " fulani" and " fula" in English come in an original manner from the Hausa and the Mandingue, respectively.
DescriptionLike French, the peul is a language subject-verb-object (SVO), sometimes VSO. Like other African languages, it is about a language with nominal classes.
The extension of the peul on such a vast space makes very difficult the precise determination of the number of speakers. The estimates go from 16 to 20 million people.
The peul is subdivided in many varieties, which are usually gathered in five great geographical units:
the speeches of the Fouta-Toro, in the lower basin of the river Senegal,
- those of the Fouta Djalon, on the high plateaus of the Guinea and its periphery,
- those of the Maasina, around the interior delta of Niger,
- the central speeches, of the south-east of the Mali to the area of the dallols Maouri and Bosso with the Niger,
- the Eastern speeches, in the old empire of Sokoto and the areas which border it (Niger-Is, Nigeria, Cameroun, Chad and Central African Republic).
The peul, like other African languages, can be written starting from the Arab characters (Ajami) or starting from the Latin characters (with an adapted alphabet).
Pronunciation: (some examples)
- " ɓ" (B implosive) decides like a " b" preceded by a stop glottal in only one sound
- " c" " decides; tch"
- " ɗ" (D implosive) decides like a " d" preceded by a stop glottal in only one sound
- " j" " decides; dj" or " dy" as in " diamant"
- " h" is always a " h" aspired
- " s" always " decides; s" (and not " z" between two vowels for example)
- " mb" the consonants articulate in only one sound " just like; nd"
- " nj" " decides; ndj"
- " ng" , the two consonants are articulated in only one sound
- " ny" , the two consonants are articulated in only one sound (it is written like " ñ" in Senegal and like " ɲ" in Mali and Burkina Faso)
- " u" decides like " ou"
; Janngde ina waɗɗii E kala neɗɗanke.
- teaching is a duty for each person.
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