See also: Micro
A personal computer , still called microcomputer or personal computer , is a Ordinateur intended for the use of a person and whose dimensions are enough reduced to hold on a office.
Material architecture of the microcomputer
A computer is composed of a Mother chart to which are connected different peripheral S via interfaces of input-output welded onto the mother chart (circuits and connectors associated) or plugged in connectors from extension (charts). The mother chart is the principal chart of the computer. It receives the Microprocesseur, the bars memories and the connectors of extension.
Fontionnelle architecture of the microcomputer
The microcomputer is a system of treatment automated of the information, which receives information in entry (peripheral of entry), allows of it temporary memorizing and the treatment (central processing unit), the safeguard and filing (peripherals of storage and safeguard), the communication (peripherals of input/output), posting and the impression (peripherals of exit).
The personal computers appeared when the cost and the dimension of the Ordinateur S could be sufficiently reduced to be sold with the general public. Before that, the computers produced by industry were central machines divided between many users who reached by means of final it numerical.
The history of the personal computers partly merges with that of the Microprocesseur S. a microcomputer, before being a small computer is a computer with (one) micro processor: The first machines appeared in kit in the Années 1970 after the creation of the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. The question of knowing which created the first microcomputer is source of controversy.
- If the first system in kit is considered, it would seem that it is Intel with its kit MCS4 in 1971.
- If one considers the first very assembled sold machine ready with employment, it acts of the Micral of French company R2E.
- If the first personal computer is considered (conceived for and sold to private individuals), it acts of the Altair 8800.
The first personal computers popular and often quoted together as having launched the “revolution” of the personal computing appeared in 1977. It is about:
In 1981 IBM produced the IBM PC. This personal computer and its descendants, the PC compatibles, gradually dominated the market, approaching the 100%. The last personal computer to occupy a considerable place in the market is the Macintosh of Apple. However, increasing convergence between the material used in the Macintosh and that used in the PC - going until the adoption, starting from 2006, of processors Intel by Apple - minimize the traditional gap between the two worlds. The principal differences between microcomputers will relate from now on primarily to their operating systems.
Some models of personal computersTo draw up an exhaustive list of all the personal computers having existed until our days is a quite difficult task. Here thus an alphabetical list of some personal computers having marked their time:
- Amstrad CPC (1984-1989)
- Apple I, II and III (1976-1980)
- Archimedes of Acorn: first computer RISC general public
- Apple Macintosh (since 1984 - exists still today. Second graphic computer of Apple after the LISA)
- Atari ST (1985-1989)
- Commodore VIC-20 (1982)
- Commodore 64 (1983)
- Commodore Amiga (1985-1994)
- Commodore FART (1977)
- Compucolor (1975), the first to be posted on a color screen - what was ever seen for a personal computer at the time of its launching
- DAI Imagination machine, very directed music and graphics (1980)
- Exidy Sorcerer (1978): first machine to assert programmable characters
- IBM 5100 and 5110 (1975-1977), languages BASIC and APL in ROMANIAN
- Kenbak-1 (1971), sold by correspondence, without microprocessor.
- Micral (1972-1973), between the large computer and the computer
- Computers of the type MSX (8 bits) (1983-1990)
- Oric: Oric 1 and Oric Atmos
- IBM-PC and compatible, since 1981, at the origin of almost all the current computers
- Sinclair Research: ZX80, ZX81, ZX Spectrum, Sinclair QL
- Thomson TO7 and MO5 (1982-1986)
- TI-99/4 of Texas Instruments (1979), the first 16 bits of the market
- Tandy TRS-80 (1977-1985)
Purchase of a computer: portable or of office
The price of the laptops decreased much during the last years and the laptop became an alternative enticing to the traditional desktop machine.
The laptop has undeniable advantages for the mobile workers who must transport their computers, for example the salesmen who visit their customers. However, the desktop machine is still the most advantageous alternative for the sedentary workers and the residential users.
Advantages of the laptops
lightness and compactness make it possible to transport the computer easily.
- compactness is also an advantage for those which have very little space with work or the house.
- Facilite presentation of the products and service or other if you have a project to present in front of sworn (nobody or company) the
Advantages of the desktop machines
- the screen is broad and can be placed at the place and with the height which maximize the comfort of the user, the image of a traditional screen is as of better quality as that of a flat panel display used in the laptops.
- the keyboard is larger and easier to use. It can also be placed at the height which is appropriate more for the user.
- the traditional mouse is much more precise and easy to use that tactile surfaces of the laptops.
- the price of a desktop machine is from 20% to 40% lower than the price of a laptop of comparable power.
- the desktop machine is more robust and evacuates its heat better that a laptop. It thus requires less repairs.
- the desktop machine is as easier and less expensive to repair as a laptop.
- After a few years, it is possible to change some parts of a desktop machine to prolong the life of it, which is about impossible with a laptop.
A desktop machine on a table provided with a sliding shelf for the keyboard and the mouse is an unbeatable alternative for the users who do not need the mobility of the laptop and who envisage to use their computer lasting more than one hour per day!
- Personal assistant
- video Game console
- Work station
- host Computer
- Operating systems
History of data processing
- Total share: 30 years off personal computer market share figures, at Ars Technica
Simple: Personal computer Zh-yue: 個人電腦
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