The Persan (RTL F فارسی), is a Langue spoken in Iran (more than 60 million speakers), in Afghanistan (16 million), with the Tadjikistan, the Bahrain (Iranian minority) and in Ouzbékistan (minority inhabitant of Tajik). It has the statute of official language in the first three quoted countries. It counts on the whole more than 75 million speakers and belongs to the Indo-Iranian group of the family of the Indo-European Langues. It is a language of the " type; subject-object-verbe". The languages Persians are written today by means of an alternative of the Arabic alphabet, although they do not offer any relationship with the Arab language , of which they differ as well in the field of the Grammaire as from the sonorities. On the other hand, with Tadjikistan (and in Ouzbékistan where she is also spoken), the language Tadjik E is written in Cyrillic characters.
It is called farsi (RTL F فارسی in Iran and Afghanistan (what is a arabized form of parsi - the Arabic alphabet does not comprise a letter p ); parsi (RTL F پارسی, an old local name, still used by certain speakers); Inhabitant of Tajik (a dialect of Central Asia) or Indian millet (local name in Afghanistan).
HistoryThe Persan is a member of the Indo-Iranian group (Aryan) of the linguistic family Indo-European. The linguists thus reconstitute the evolution of this branche : Old man-Persan (avestic and Persan achéménide) → means-Persan (pahlavi, Parthian and Persan sassanide) → Persan modern (Indian millet, etc). One should not confuse thePersan one, the language of the majority of the inscriptions achéménides, with the language élamite, which is not Indo-European. In the course of time, the morphology of the language was largely simplified and the conjugation and the variation complexes of the origins yielded the place to regular morphology and the rigid syntax which one knows today. This evolution is often compared with the development of the English. Moreover, of many words coming from the neighbouring languages (Greek Araméen and in old times, later the Arab and, to a lesser extent, the Turkish ) were introduced into the Persan vocabulary . More recently, the loans with the European languages (mainly with the French and the English) were most frequent.
Close dialects and languagesThe communication is generally understandable between the Iranians, the Inhabitants of Tajik and the Afghans speaking Persan; however, one can note the following definitions:
- the Dari is the local name for the Eastern dialect of Persan, one of the two official languages of the Afghanistan, of which the Hazaragi - spoken by the people Hazara about the center about Afghanistan.
- the Tadjik can also be regarded as a dialect of the Persan one, but contrary to the Persan Iranian and Afghan, he is written with the Cyrillic alphabet.
The ethnologists offer another classification of the dialects of the language Persian. According to this source, the dialects of Persan include the following languages:
- Persan Westerner (in Iran)
- Persan Eastern (in Afghanistan)
- Inhabitant of Tajik (with the Tadjikistan)
- Hazaragi (in Afghanistan)
- Aimak (in Afghanistan)
- Boukharique (in Ouzbékistan)
- Dehwari (with the Pakistan)
- Darwazi (in Afghanistan)
- Pahlavani (in Afghanistan)
The following languages are close languages spoken by several people inside current Iran:
- Mazandarani, spoken in north about Iran and mainly in the province of the Mazandaran.
- Gilaki (or Gileki ), spoken in the province about the Gilan.
- Talysh (or Talishi ), spoken in north about Iran and the parts of the south of the Azerbaïdjan.
- Lori (or Luri ), spoken mainly in the provinces about the Lorestan and the Khuzestan in the south-west of Iran.
- Tat (also called Tati or Eshtehardi ), spoken in areas about the provinces of the Eastern Azeraïdjan, Zanjan and Qazvin.
- Indian millet or Gabri, spoken at the origin with Yazd and Kerman by Zoroastriens about Iran. Also called Yazdi by some.
OrthographyThe vast majority of Persan modern is written in a form of the Arabic alphabet. In the recent years, the Latin alphabet was used by certain for reasons of technology or internationalization. The Inhabitant of Tajik, a Persan dialect influenced by the Russian , is written with the Cyrillic alphabet with the Tadjikistan (but not in Afghanistan).
Arabic alphabetdetailed article: Adaptations of the alphabet arabe#Langues Persians
detailed article: Alphabet Perso-Arab
The Persan modern one is normally written by using a modified alternative of the Arabic alphabet.
Adoption of scriptFor the conversion of the Persian Empire of to the Islam, it was necessary approximately a hundred and fifty years before the Persan ones do not adopt the Arabic alphabet to replace their old alphabet. Previously, two different alphabets were used for the Persan one (called Persan Moyen or Pahlavi at that time): one was called Pahlevi and was an adaptation of the Aramean alphabet, and the other was an original Iranian alphabet called Dîndapirak (literally: writing of the religion)
AdditionsThe Persan alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet. This addition is due to the fact that four sounds existing in Persan do not exist in Arab, since the two languages come completely different families. Some call this alphabet the Alphabet perso-Arabic . The four additional letters are:
VariationsMany Persan words of Arab origin are differently written original Arab word. Alef with the hamza below ( إ ) always into alef (  changes; ا ); teh marbuta ( ة ) usually, but not always into teh (  changes; ت ) or in heh ( ه ); several words using various types of hamza are written with another kind of hamza (in this manner مسؤول becomes مسئول).
The letters of different forms are:
The diacritic marks used in Arab script, or harakat , are also used into Persan, although some decide differently. For example a Damma in Arabic decides /u/, whereas into Persan one pronounces it /o/.
The alternative Persian adds also a concept of pseudo-space to the Arab writing, called a ZWNJ (Zero-width non-joiner) in the standard Unicode. This character acts as a space by disconnecting two adjacent characters which optionnellement would optionnellement be joined without the ZWNJ which does not have a visual width.
Extensions to the other languagesThe characteristics of Persan were taken again by other languages like the Pashto or the Ourdou and was sometimes even wider with other letters or new punctuation marks.
Latin alphabetthe Persan universal alphabet (UniPers/Pârsiye Jahâni) is an alphabet based on the Latin alphabet created there is more than 50 years in Iran and popularized by Mohammed Keyvan, who used it in many Persan books for the foreigners and the travellers. It puts side the difficulties of the traditional alphabet based on Arabic, with these multiple shapes of letter, and adapts particularly well to the modern context of the written media.
L'" Persan International Alphabet " (IPA2), commonly called Pársik is another alphabet based on Latin script developed recently, mainly by A. Moslehi, a comparative linguist, in so much the project defines and under the authority of the Association of the Persan linguists. It is the famous most exact being of the Persan alphabets based on the Latin script in which many linguistic aspects Persan modern was respected; however, these rules are not as simple as UniPers.
The Fingilish , or Penglish , is the name given to the written texts using the basic Latin alphabet. It is commonly used within the framework of applications of Instant messaging, of Email and SMS.
PhoneticsThe Persan one has six vowels and thirty-three consonants, including two Affriquées /ʧ/ (CH) and /ʤ/ (J).
Historically, the Persan one distinguished the length: long vowels /i: / , /u: / , /ɑ: / contrasting with the short vowels /e/ , /o/ , /æ/ . The Persan modern one spoken, however, does not make generally any more this type of distinctions.
Notez that /ʧ/ and /ʤ/ are affricate consonants, not the occlusive ones.
GrammarThe suffixes prevail in the morphology of the Persan one, although there is also a small number of prefixes. The verbs can express time and the aspect, and they agree with the subject of number. There does not exist kind for the names, nor for the pronouns.
The normal declaratory sentences are structured “(S) (PP) (O) V”. What means that the verbs can include/understand optional subjects, prepositional sentences and objects, followed necessary verb. If the object is particular, then it is followed word rɑ: and the proposal precedes “(S) (O + “ rɑ: ”) (PP) V”.
VocabularyThere are many words borrowed in the Persan one, coming for the majority from the Arab , of the English, the French and the Turkish Langues.
In the same way, the Persan one influenced the vocabularies of other languages, in particular the Indo-Iranian Langues and the Turkish Langues. Many Persan words also found their way until the English language.
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