The pepper is a spice obtained starting from bays of various species of pepper plants, of the Plante S of the family of the Pipéracée S. Seuls the Fruit S of the Piper nigrum and of the Piper longum legally have right to name “pepper”.
The species Piper nigrum produces according to the stage of harvest and the type of preparation of the black pepper, white or green
- the black pepper is obtained starting from bay S almost with maturity, fermented and dried.
- the white pepper consists of bays wall removed from their Péricarpe.
- the green pepper is obtained by the wet immature bay conservation.
History and Origin
Its name comes from the Sanskrit pippali , which gave the Latin piper . The culture of the Poivrier is originating in the west coast of the India (Malabar Coast) in the state of the Kérala then gained other countries of Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the Brésil. Its use in Greece would go back from the epopee to Alexandre the Large one.
The ancient history of the black pepper plant is often dependant (and confused with) that of the long pepper plant. The dry fruits of this last were used to manufacture Pipeau X. The Romans made use of the two species without distinction. In fact, the discovery of the new world and peppers of Chile made disappear the use of the long pepper plant. The fruits of Chile pepper once dry resemble those of the long pepper plant were easier to cultivate in Europe. With the the Middle Ages, the spices as pepper are rare. The conquest of Alexandria in 642 by the Arab S marks the beginning of this trade. For this reason rarest spice S as pepper is used like Monnaie of exchange. The richness of noble could be evaluated compared to its quantity of pepper. At the time, the German rich person were called bags of pepper .
From 16th century, pepper was also cultivated with Java and Sumatra (islands which forms today part of the republic of Indonesia), in Malayan Péninsule and elsewhere in Southeast Asia but these areas traded mainly with the China or consumed pepper locally. Pepper was also cultivated with Madagascar.
Principal producersThe worldwide production of pepper is 366.511 tons in 2003. The Vietnam is the largest producer with 90.000 tons. Then follow: the Indonesia 67.000 tons, the Brazil 63.000 tons, the India 51.000 tons, the Malaysia 32.000 tons, the China 21.000 tons.
Effects on the human organismPepper is often used to heal the light cuts quickly. This practice is frequently met in hotel industry and in kitchen particularly, where the light cuts are relatively frequent with for direct consequence an interruption of work, and where pepper is easily available. In addition, the stimulative properties of pepper on digestive secretions are well-known. The ripe fruits of the black pepper contain an essential oil rich in alpha Pinène, béta-pinene and béta-caryophyllene, with the heating properties, stimulative, antalgic and Aphrodisiaque S, used in particular in phyto- Aromathérapie.
Pepper owes its prickly savor with amides of the Pipéridine. The ripe fruits of the black pepper contain an essential oil rich in alpha-pinene, béta-pinene and béta-caryophyllene, with the heating properties, stimulative, antalgic and aphrodisiacs, used in particular in phyto-aromathérapie
To go further
- Toil' of spices - Pepper
- White pepper of Penja
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