Passion of Christ
The passion of Christ is the whole of the Souffrance S and Supplice S which preceded and accompanied death by Jesus de Nazareth says Christ.
The account of Passion, as well as the advertisements of Passion, are reported in the New Testament of the Bible, in particular the synoptic Gospels and the Gospel according to Jean, like in various texts apocryphal book S.
They are texts in religious matter which express the faith of the writers. The Exégèse makes it possible to make the share between the properly historical elements and interpretation.
Advertisements of PassionAccording to the synoptic Gospels, the Christ announces her death and its Résurrection with three recoveries:
- with the disciples, after his recognition by the apostle Simon-Pierre like Messiah, in the area of Césarée in Israel (||)
- with the disciples, brought together in Galileo (||)
- with the twelve apostles on the road of Jerusalem (||).
- that Jesus de Nazareth will be delivered to large the priests and the scribe S, which will condemn it to death;
- that he will suffer much on behalf of the old ones, of the large priests and the scribes;
- that it will be delivered to the pagan (note: this word indicates the Romains)
- that it will be ridiculed, whipped and put in cross
- the Résurrection of Jesus the third day.
The account of Passion
The arrest of JesusTwo days before the Jewish Passover, Jesus is at Simon the leprous with Béthanie, village which is in the south-east of the Mount of Olives, to approximately 3 km of Jerusalem. The evening come, after the meal with the Twelve apostle (Cène), Jesus goes to the garden Gethsémani, where it is insulated with the Apôtre S Pierre, Jacques Major the and Jean.
The apostle Judas arrives then, carrying out an armed band Romaine sent by the large priests Juif S and the old ones. Judas designates Jesus by giving him a kiss.
The guards are seized of Jesus and take along it in front of the Jewish authorities so that he is judged. Simon had left his sword and half-compartment the ear the servant of the Large Priest, but Jesus opposes his intervention:
- “Regaine your sword; because all those which take the sword will perish by the sword”.
Jesus in front of SanhédrinThe synoptic Gospels report that Jesus is taken along in front of the Grand priest Caïphe, where meet the scribe S and the old ones. At the conclusion of his interrogation, Jesus publicly proclaims to be the Messie and the Son of God.
Jesus then is condemned to died for Blasphème.
The version of the Gospel according to Jean is rather different: Jesus is carried out in front of Anne, the father-in-law of Caïphe and former large priest. This one questions Jesus on his disciples and his Doctrine: " After being slapped by one of the guards, Jesus is sent in the large Caïphe" priest;
During the interrogation of Jesus, Pierre was held in the court of the large priest. Questioned on its membership of the Disciple S of Jesus, he disavows Jesus three times before the song of the cock, as that had been predicted.
Jesus in front of the Roman prefect
The next morning, Jesus is taken along and judged in front of the Préfet Pontius Pilate. Once condemned to died by Pilate, it is initially whipped, i.e. related to a column where it is struck with a whip with the thin straps ballasted of bone or metal (Brown and Al 628).
The canonical Gospels, except for the Gospel according to Luc, report that Jesus is taken along to the court (Praetorium), supposed to be either the palate of the king of Galileo Hérode Antipas, or Strong Antonia (Brown and Al 628). Matthieu and Marc speaks both that a whole company soldiers, who were probably for the majority of the recruits of Palestine or Syria (Brown and Al 628), punishes Jesus. This is improbable and more certainly an exaggeration since a company of soldiers included/understood from 200 to 600 soldiers. (Brown and Al 628). Jean does not indicate how much soldiers were present. They cover it with a tunic crimson (holy Tunique), and place a to him crown of spines on the head, and acclaim it like king of the Jews . They pretend to pay homage to him, by knocking the head with a stick to him which, according to the Gospel according to Matthieu, had been made to support. The Gospels try to show that the soldiers achieve the intentions of God involuntarily. (Miller 50).
After this episode, Marc and Matthieu note that the soldiers return to Jesus his clothing, but according to the Gospel according to Jean, they leave him the dress crimson and the crown. At this point in time Pontius Pilate request with the Hebrew public present in the small court of the Temple to choose which of Jesus or Barabbas (a brigand) will escape the execution. However this “crowd” exclaims, according to the texts, “Release Barabbas”, at the same time letting carry out Jesus.
This episode is probably at the origin of beliefs according to which the Jewish people responsible for would have been died for the Christ (see Déicide). This interpretation was fought by the Église at least since the Concile of Thirty, as the Catéchisme to the Council of Thirty testifies to it (1566), and the Catéchisme of the Catholic church promulgated in 1991. A survival of this belief remained until in 1959 in the Prière of the Good Friday (Oremus and pro perfidis judaeis).
See also: Via Dolorosa, Way of Cross
According to the Gospel, Jesus was obliged, as others condemned to the Crucifiement (which will become for this precise case the Crucifixion), to carry its own cross to the mount of the Golgotha (the place of the cranium ), the place of the execution. According to the synoptic Gospels, on the road of the Golgotha, the soldiers oblige a passer by, Simon de Cyrène, to carry the cross of Jesus. The reason is not given by it in the Évangiles, but the Évangile according to Marc finds convenient to quote the children of Simon, Alexandre and Rufus , as if they had been known characters of the future readers of Marc (Brown and Al 628). Paul quotes also a Rufus in its Épître with the Romans. Luc adds that the women disciples followed Jesus, and cried over his destiny, but that he answered them by quotations.
When they arrive at the Golgotha, the synoptic Gospels declare that he is proposed in Jesus of the wine interfered Myrrhe to attenuate the pain, but he refuses it. Jesus is then crucifié, according to the synoptic Gospels with the third hour (9 H), but according to Jean with the sixth hour (midday).
The synoptic Gospels add that the cross comprised, above the head of Jesus, the inscription '' Iesu Nazarati Rex Iudorum '', “Jesus de Nazareth, king of the Jews”. The Évangile according to Jean specifies that Pilate wrote this inscription on a sign, in Hebrew, Latin and Greek old.
The canonical Évangiles state whereas clothing of Jesus was withdrawn to him by the soldiers, to be distributed between them of several batches. The Évangile according to Jean claims that this achieves a Prophétie. According to the Gospel according to Luc, the two robbers crucifiés at the sides of Jesus, speak to him. Luc declares that one scoffed Jesus, and that the other respected it, and that Jesus declared that the respectful robber would gain promptly his entry with the Paradis; traditionally the other is regarded as dedicated with the hell.
Dating of the events
According to the Gospels, Jesus would have been crucifié the day before the Shabbat (weekly Saturday of rest of the Jews), i.e. one Friday, but this point is sometimes disputed, because three days ago full between death with Jesus and its Résurrection next Sunday: to satisfy the advertisements of Passion, it is necessary to hope as follows:
1st day: died of Jesus Friday afternoon, before the twilight, (the hour of change of date for the Jews);
- 2nd day: Saturday, day of the Shabbat (weekly Saturday of rest of the Jews)
- 3rd day: Resurrection Sunday morning or in the night before.
But, for the date, the synoptic Gospels do not agree with the Gospel according to Jean, who locates the death of Jesus () the day of the preparation of the Jewish Passover, the 14 Nissan, whereas the synoptic Gospels place the day of the Azymes the day before (|), and thus the death of Jesus 15 Nissan. Starting from the elements of the New Testament, associated with the knowledge of astronomical historical events and , the historians generally date the event supposed from the Passion of Christ between 28 and 33, at the end of March or at the beginning of April.
Two dates are more frequently advanced:
- Friday April 7th 30, full moon Thursday April 6th with 23:56;
- Friday April 3rd 33, full moon the April 3rd with 15:02. This same day, a eclipse partial of the moon theoretically visible with Jerusalem took place towards 17:51 with 18:33 (local times): this eclipse could be close to the eclipse of the sun (impossible at the time of full moon) described in the synoptic Gospels (||).
Instruments of Passion
The religious artists often represent the instruments or objects which surround passion:
Two angels which present,
- Marteaux, (nails), clippers,
- scales to depend the bodies on crucifiés,
- the three crosses,
- the lance of the centurion,
- the sponge soaked with vinegar at the end of a branch of hysope,
- (the crown of spine and the sceptre)
- the cock of saint-Pierre.
- thirty silver coins of Judas,
- the lantern of the guards, torches,
- the sword of Saint-Pierre,
- the reed and the whip of scourging,
- the tunic without seam and red clothing,
- dice to draw with the fate clothing,
- bitter drink cut, and the chalice of the anguish,
- the hand of the high priest who slapped Christ…
Way of cross
- Crucifixion and Crucifixion
- Passion (painting)
- Good Friday
- Prayer of the Good Friday
- Sacri Monti
- Jerusalem at the time of Hérode
- the Passion of Christ according to Turin Shroud, by brother Bruno of Jesus, extract of the n° 332, Easter 1997, of the Catholic Counter-Reformation of the 21e century
- All the Passion of Jesus told by the famous visionary Anne Catherine Emmerich, of which Mel Gibson for the reconstitution would have been inspired by certain scenes of its film.
- the Passion of Jesus told by the mystics, on a site of defense of the Catholic church
- '' Jewish Passover and Easter Christian woman: the same calendar? '', article of Jean-Paul Michaud, on the site interbible.org
- Moment of the Crucifixion and Resurrection, study of the Christian Churches of God
- the site of the Mounts Crowned, Martyrdoms and Complex dévotionnels European
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