Party of the Hungarian coalition
The Left the Hungarian coalition (Hungarian: Magyar Koalíció Pártja , Slovak: Strana maďarskej koalície , officially recorded under the bilingual denomination Strana maďarskej koalície - Magyar Koalíció Pártja , abbreviation SMK or SMK-MKP) is a ethnic Political party of Slovakia founded in 1994 by three parties or political movements of the Hungarian minority of Slovakia, the Movement Hungarian Christian Democrat ( Magyar Kereszténydemokrata Mozgalom ), the political movement Coexistence ( Együttélés Politikai Mozgalom ) and the Hungarian civic Party ( Magyar Polgári Párt ), complete fusion having taken place on June 22nd, 1998. He became associated member of the European Popular party (EPP) on June 7th, 2000, with whole share after the accession of Slovakia to the European Union in 2004, and full member of the European democratic Union (European international democratic Union connects, integrated in 2002 into the EPP) in January 2001. The SMK is in addition member of the federalistic Union of the European ethnic communities, where it is the only one representing Hungarian minority of Slovakia.
- legislative Slovak of 1990 (first after the velvet revolution, within the framework of Czechoslovakia): 292 636 votes (8,66%, 14 seats) for the list Együttélés-Movement Hungarian Christian Democrat (ESWMK)
- legislative of 1992 (first of Slovakia independent): 228 885 votes (7,42%, 14 seats) for list MKM-EGY (Movement Christian Democrat Hungarian-Együttélés), 70 689 votes (2,29%, 0 seat) for list MPP-MOS (Magyar Polgári Párt - Maďarská občianska strana)
- legislative of 1994:292 936 votes (10,18%, 17 seats)
- legislative of 1998: 306 623 votes (9,12%, 15 seats); only the other Hungarian list, Maďarské ľudové hnutie za zmierenie has prosperitu - Magyar Népi Mozgalom has Megbékélésért are has Jólétért, had obtained only 6 587 votes, are 0,19% and no legislative seat
- of 2002:321 069 votes (11,16%, 20 seats)
- European of 2004: 92 927 votes (13,24 %, 2 seats, Edict Bauer and Árpád Duka-Zólyomi)
- legislative of 2006: 269 111 vote (11,68%, 20 seats)
Executive participationsThe SMK took part in the Slovak governments during two legislatures, in 1998-2002 and 2002-2006.
In 2002-2006, this party counted four ministers and six Secretaries of State:
- Pál Csáky, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister for European Integration and the rights of the minorities
- László Miklós, minister of environment
- László Gyurovszky, Minister for Construction and Regional development
- Zsolt Simon, Minister for Agriculture
Béla Bugár, at the time president of the party, in addition became vice-president of the Slovak Parliament in 1998-2002, then president in 2002-2006. He declared in 2000 in connection with the governmental participation “ It is a formidable experiment, the Slovak ones realize that they can count on us, that we are located apart from their quarrels and can thus constitute a pole of stability. ”
Territorial autonomyThe SMK estimates that the Slovak area division was carried out so that the Hungarians remain in minority in all the areas, and thus requires a territorial recutting, without to touch at the international borders. However, the charges of separatism are frequently raised by Slovak politicians, especially those of the Slovak national Parti (SNS, extreme nationalist right, member of the government coalition) in the opposition so much to the SMK than of the Hungarian minority in general, preferred target of this party with the Rroms and the homosexual ones.
These charges were renewed for example in February 2007 within the framework of the support of the Slovak government, supported by the Slovak parties of the majority like opposition, with the Serb positions with respect to the Kosovo, whereas the SMK supported the position of the Albanian parties of Kosovo and the Ahtisaari. In front of the charges uttered by the SNS, according to which the position of the SMK in this file would reflect its own separatist aspirations, a deputy of the SMK, József Berényi, had to specify that “We do not regard the possible independence of Kosovo as a precedent, although we always think that the collective rights (for the minorities) in the fields of the culture and teaching are legitimate” .
Mid-May 2007, a petition in favor of the autonomy of the zones with Hungarian majority was launched by a Hungarian association of Komárno, in the area of Nitra, which made it possible to the leader of the SNS to again show the SMK to prepare a scenario of the Kosovan type. In the name of the SMK, József Berényi formally contradicted any implication of its party in the launching of this petition, of local initiative, specifying that if the SMK wished to organize linked activities with autonomy, it would do it at the Parliament and not through petitions, and that the SMK would not seek to obtain supports abroad for autonomy, preferring “the support of the Slovak parliamentary parties”.
Repairs morals and financial for the Beneš decreesThe Décrets Beneš of 1945 collectively declared the Germans and enemy Hungarians of Czechoslovakia the “of the State”, with in particular withdrawal of their Czechoslovakian citizenship (33/1945 Sb. - Constitutional Decree of the president of the republic of August 2nd, 1945) and confiscation of the agricultural real goods (12/1945 Sb. - Presidential decree of the republic of June 21st, 1945). As Slovakia, decree 33 caused expulsion of 90000 Hungarians of Czechoslovakia towards Hungary. In same time, approximately 70000 Slovak of Hungary would have been off-set in the other direction.
According to Dušan Kováč, historian and vice-president of the Slovak Academy of Science, interviewed by the Slovak Spectator ,
- " the hardest measurement against the Hungarians was that the authorities moved them at the Czech borders, of the empty zones whose Germans had been expelled. After 1948, citizens of ethnicité Hungarian have received citizenship, their goods have also be restored with certain number among them, but not with all because meanwhile the law on the expropriation of the goods was coming into effect, which applied to all the citizens of Czechoslovakia, not only those of German and Hungarian ethnic nationality. "
The new vice-president of the SMK, Miklós Duray, declared with the Slovak daily newspaper Hospodárske Noviny of April 10th, 2007 that: " the Hungarians were stripped of all their civic rights and were regarded as criminals, just because they were Hungarian. Excuses are not enough, the injustices must be rectified and repaired. The goods of those which were injured must be to them restored, and if one cannot return these same goods to them, they should be compensated financially . "
The president of the party, Pál Csáky, did not repudiate these declarations, not taking again however on his account the request for financial compensation: " Slovakia should be at least excused near these people who were persecuted only because of their ethnic nationality, under the terms of the principle of collective culpability. ".
These declarations caused very hostile reactions on behalf of the Slovak politicians. Thus, Anna Belousovová, vice-president of the Slovak national Parti declared that " I believe that Duray already wrote a program of autonomy. To open this question of the Beneš decrees only amounts changing the borders. The Beneš decrees are a business solved and enclosed for us, therefore there is in any event nothing to discuss. ". The Deputy Prime Minister Dušan Čaplovič of the Direction - Social democracy (Smer, social democrat), as for him declared " I think that the idea to re-examine the Beneš decrees can be proposed only by somebody whose intention is to break the good relationships between Slovaques and Hungarian and to open old wounds. ".
The political economist Grigorij Mesežnikov, who shares the analysis of Dušan Kováč, estimates on the other hand that the question of the compensations will not succeed: " Although the correction of the historical injustices is important for many members of the Hungarian ethnic community, that it is quite alive and legitimate on the political plan, the nationalist nature of the current government coalition makes this question impossible to be approached ".
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