The Parliament is a collegial Organe which can have several functions. In its direction more currently running, the Parliament is the assembly elected which ensures the representation of the Peuple, in the democratic State S and for this reason is Destiny of the democracy as wrote it Hans Kelsen. It has two functions:
- to make and demolish the Law S, he is thus the holder of the Legislative power;
- to control the action of the Government Country.
General informationThe Parliament represents the Citoyen S but also can, for example in a Federal state, to represent territories.
There exist the two shapes of Parliament:
- the Parliaments monocaméraux, which consist of only one room
- the bicameral Parliaments , which consist of two rooms (the Upper House and the Lower House)
The room known as “low” is indicated with the universal direct suffrage according to a variable way of voting depending on the States. The election of the members of the Upper House can vary according to the countries, for some they are the citizens who elect them, for others are Great Electors. The Upper House is often called Sénat.
In Europe, the Parliaments were sometimes born against the king, to authorize the tax. Vote and control were then closely dependant. Today, the two functions extended and separated according to the principle from the Séparation from the capacities.
The Parliament deliberates then vote the law; in certain countries and under certain conditions these laws must be submitted to the citizens before being able to come into effect; in other countries the chief of the executive must sign the law to allow this one to into effect come. The government, which sometimes could take part in its development, carries out it.
In parallel, the Parliament can control the action of the Gouvernement:
- it can have the possibility of reversing it,
- it can question it,
- it can proceed to investigations
- it votes the Budget and can check its employment.
In a Mode of assembly , marked by the confusion of the capacities, the Parliament concentrates the legislative and executive functions.
In a parliamentary Mode , the government emanates from the Parliament, is responsible in front of him, and can dissolve it.
In France, since the advent of the Fifth Republic wanted by the General de Gaulle, the President of the Republic has rather important capacities, of which that to name the government or to dissolve the assembly, but the national representation is sovereign and has broad powers to control.
Until the 18th century
The Parliaments appear with the Moyen-âge. They result, in theory, from the Curia Regis (Conseil of the king) of which they are the establishment in an area depending directly on the crown.
Before the Revolution, the term of Parliament indicates in France a court of justice judging in call of the jurisdictions of an area, and whose legislative power is purely jurisprudential. Stops of payments, taken collégialement all joined together rooms, make it possible to codify points of law by making a synthesis of jurisprudence.
Many matters are competence of special jurisdictions under call of other courses sovereign that the Parliaments, in particular for the dispute relating to the ecclesiastical businesses, with the field of king (National Forestry Commission, Amirauté, currency), with certain professions (Constabulary, room of Masonry), with the tax questions.
The rooms of the Parliaments do not represent social categories, but the various matters of the dispute. They do not have the capacity to vote taxes, or to control the decisions of the government, or to represent social classes as in England after the Glorieuse Revolution.
However, they are charged to record and publish the royal acts after having checked their coherence with the remainder of the right of their arise, including the general principles. Without this recording, the royal acts are not applicable.
In France, one counted thirteen sovereign Parliaments and councils at the end of the Old Mode, most important being the Parlement of Paris.
The parliamentary jansénisme " indicate, in second half of the XVIIIe century, a movement of the Bourgeoisie which begins with the the revolt of the cabochiens and which tends to consider that all the Parliaments form a sovereign single body together, holder of a political power and legitimate source of the right.
See also: Parliament (Old Mode), Amorce=article detailed for France
In the world
Democratic republic of Congo
- Parliament of the Democratic republic of Congo
- National Assembly of the Democratic republic of Congo
- Senate of the Democratic republic of Congo
See also: French Parliament
The French Parlement is composed of two rooms:
- the National Assembly, elected directly by the citizens, sits at the Palate-Bourbon
- the Sénat, elected with the indirect vote for all, seat with the Palais of Luxembourg
Source: Public life
IndonesiaThe Parliament Indonesia N, called Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (" deliberative Parliament of the people ") or MPR, is composed of 2 rooms:
- the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (" representative council of the people ") or DPR, which is the National Assembly country,
- the Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (" representative council of the areas ") or DPD.
See also: Parliament (Swiss)
The Swiss Parliament, named federal Parliament when the two rooms sit jointly as at the time of the election of the government, is composed of:
- National council, sometimes called Lower House, where each canton is represented proportionally with its population.
- the Council of the States, sometimes called Upper House, where each canton has two representatives (and demicantons, only one).
See also: Parliament of Morocco
The Parlement of Morocco is composed of two rooms:
- the Room of the Representatives, Lower House.
- the Room of the Advisers, Upper House.
See also: the General Cortes
The Parliament of Spain, known as the General Cortes , is composed of two rooms:
- the Congreso of los diputados (Congress of the deputies), composed of 350 elected deputies every four years. Each province elects a number of deputies proportional to his population, with a minimum of two deputies per province.
- the Senado (Senate), composed of a variable number senators, is elected every four years. Each province elects four senators, except for the Canary islands and of the Balearic Islands, where each island or combination of islands elects the three islands largest and others. The towns of Ceuta and Melilla elect two senators each one. The autonomous Communautés of Spain must also elect a senator per million inhabitants in their territory.
The two rooms can join to discuss the businesses relating to the Crown.
- the European Parliament (European Union)
- Assembleia da República (Portugal)
- Bundesrat (Germany, room of the federation)
- the Bundestag (Germany, Lower House)
- Camera dei deputati (Italy, Lower House)
- House of Commons (the United Kingdom, Lower House)
- House of Lords (the United Kingdom, Upper House)
- the Cortes (Spain)
- Dáil Éireann (Ireland)
- Duma (Russia)
- Eduskunta (Finland)
- Eerste Kamer (Netherlands, Upper House)
- Folketing (Denmark)
- Kuvendi (Albania)
- Riigikogu (Estonia)
- Sabor (Croatia)
- Saeima (Latvia)
- Seimas (Lithuania)
- Sénat (Belgium)
- Chambre of the Representatives (Belgium)
- Senato della Repubblica (Italy, Upper House)
- Tweede Kamer (Netherlands, Lower House)
- Verkhovna Split (Ukraine)
Apart from Europe
- House of Commons of Canada
- Congress of the United States
- Diet of Japan
- Knesset (Israel)
- Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (" deliberative Parliament of the people ") of Indonesia
- Parlatino (Latin America)
- Parliament of India
- Interparliamentary Union: information on all the Parliaments of the world
- Bonds towards the official sites of several Parliaments of the world
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