The schizo-paranoid , sometimes translated Position paranoid-schizoid Position , or simply paranoid position , is a concept of Melanie Klein describing the psychic operation of the infant, and which can introduce in the schizophrenic adult, in particular or Paranoïa that.
Development of the conceptMelanie Klein developing the Psychoanalysis of the children, it approaches very early problems. To analyze the thought of the child thus leads it to theorize the beginning of the mental activities. Moreover, like other modern analysts, it raises the question of the Psychose.
In 1934, it presents the concept of Depressive position. As for Ronald Fairbairn, it approached in 1941 the question of schizoid features present among nonschizophrenic patients, for example in hysteria. He works by there the original cleavage of Ego.
Klein teaches in 1946 on these schizoid mechanisms and presents the Projective identification. It develops the concept of paranoid position, which it names first of all persécutif stage, then rudimentary paranoid state , the term of paranoid approaching as well the paranoia as of paranoid schizophrenia.
The rudimentary paranoid state is seen, in a first theorization, related to the anal Stade early describes by Karl Abraham. Klein binds thereafter this state to the Oral stage, and the first relations of the infant with the outside world; it adopts the term of position, marking the idea of a stature of psychic being able to remain active the life lasting.
Infantile positionFor Melanie Klein, like other analysts such as Donald Winnicott, the Death instinct appears very highly in the first months of the life. There is thus as of the birth Ambivalence nelle Pulsion. For being able to treat these painful excitations psychiquement, the Infans (the infant which does not speak yet) will have recourse to different mechanisms of defense.
The infant about which Klein speaks did not build yet a Me such as that of the adult; this Me is already able to implement defenses but proves very little integrated: it will be the possible result of the schizo-paranoid position. But certain descriptions of the psychic structuring of this period describe well an effort in this direction: certain relational methods, certain mechanisms of defense show the first steps in the acquisition of functions which will be later the prerogative of Ego.
There is not relation with a total object which would be the mother. The splitting of the object, it cutting in fragments, the ones good and the other bad ones, brings relational methods specific to these partial objects. On the one hand, the good object, for example the feeder center and gratificator is idealized. In addition, the bad center will be perceived like persecutor and dangerous.
Psychic defensesThese relational methods, lead the child to be denied bad.
the Splitting of the object is the formalization of impossibility of appearing an object like at the same time source of pleasure and displeasure. The object is truncated, working partial objects. There is thus splitting of the object before it is not formed to me nevrotic (this authority is still very immature).
the child outside will project the death instinct (mechanism of projection). It allots its psychic violence thus outside. It will have in particular recourse to the Projective identification.
the child with recourse to the Refusal. This mechanism is former and more violent one that the Refoulement; a whole piece of reality is seen refusing very dealt with. But this part censured even present in some other authority of is not psyché.
the Introjection is the early capacity to integrate certain elements perceived outside; and this in spite of the absence of Me, which differentiates this defense from the Identification, more elaborate. The good will be introjecté by the child to reassure themselves and protect themselves from its own violence. The bad one is also introjecté, which then reinforces the mechanisms previously described. (L introjection will be evoked in the second position described by Melanie Klein, namely the Depressive position, as a mechanism of defense to avoid the loss of the good object when the child realizes that it does only one with the bad one, and thus to fight against the culpability resulting from his hypothetical aggression.)
the Idéalisation is the investment of a subject to make a total Objet of it, completely good, or completely bad (which corespond with the idea that one wants some). It is a possible reaction to the need to fight against the bad object without losing the good.
Psychopathology of the paranoid positionThe analysts kleiniens will work the question of a paranoid position and a projective identification pathological which would be a point of fixing in the psychosis. Like it notes Hanna Segal, these studies run up against the greatest difficulties, since the memories of the patients are not inevitably in agreement with the psychical reality of the time, when there is not word and that the pathological one adds a dimension difficult to analyze.
Among this work, those of Wilfred Bion systematize a pathological projective identification (that Meltzer will name intrusive identification), which does not allow the D-introjection of the projected object, since this one bursts in thousand fragments, consequently breaking the target object of projection.
Effects, positions and anguishesKlein describes certain affects specific to this paranoid phase. It works out in particular the Envie. The desire is a destroying affect; if Klein takes again the word of the Penis envy that Sigmund Freud grants to the woman, it makes of it a paramount Affect and concerning the two sexes.
The paranoid position is characterized by a persecuting anguish, but defenses close to schizophrenia. The evolution of the child will lead it to be formed one Me integrated as to perceive the mother as total Objet - it is the moment when the child reconnaït his mother. The anguish will be then of depressive nature, and it will not be yet about the Angoisse of castration.
One notes that the two positions described by Klein take again the three categories, in Psychiatrie, of Schizophrénie, Paranoïa and maniaco-depressive Psychose.
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