Pampelune (in Castilian: Pamplona ; in Basque: Iruña or Iruñea ) is a Spanish city, capital of the Communauté forale of Navarre to 440 m of altitude. It has a population of: 193328 inhabitants and is the principal city of an urban surface of more than: 350000 inhabitants
GeographyPampelune is located in the area of the Navarre, in the north of the Spain.
Of Roman origin, Pompaelo would have been founded towards 75 av. J. - C. by Pompée which would have given him its name. It was occupied by the Visigoths in 476. At the 8th century, the Moors occupy the city. They are driven out by it in 778 with the assistance of the troops of Charlemagne which benefits from the weakness of its allies to dismantle their ramparts. To be avenged, the Navarreses contribute to the crushing of the rear-guard of the imperial armies to the Col of Roncevaux at the time of the Bataille of Roncevaux. The Kingdom of Pampelune, made up in 905, was the core of that of Navarre.
Under Alphonse VII (1126-1157), francos were established in the borough of San Cernin. Another frank borough, San Nicolas, were created at the end of the 12th century.
Throughout the the Middle Ages, the life of the city will be disturbed by fights between the inhabitants of the old working, Navarreria, in favor of alliance with the Castille, and the francos of the suburbs of San Cernin and San Nicolàs, favorable to the maintenance of the Navarrese crown under a French dynasty, each one protected from walls. These conflicts which did not slow down the development generated by the passage of the pilgrims.
These fights finish in 1423 with the privilege del Fuero (charter) or of the Union promulgated by Charles III Noble the. The three municipalities are based then in only one and Pampelune knows its apogee.
The city is taken by the troops of Ferdinand the Catholic with Jean III of Albret on July 25th 1512. This one tries to reconquer its kingdom and puts the seat in front of Pampelune on November 3rd, but in vain. His/her son takes again the city on May 19th 1521 ( Voir Siège of Pampelune ), but his general-in-chief André de Foix beaten with Bataille of Noain. In 1571, under the reign of Philippe II begins construction from the citadel. At the 16th century, walls determined the agglomeration and the jacquets penetrated in its enclosure by the door of France, near to the cathedral Sainte-Marie. It was taken by the French in 1808.
For certain partisans of the Basque Nationalism, Pampelune would be the historical capital of euskal herria (literally the " country of the euskera" or more commonly the " Basque Country " in the broad sense).
The pilgrimage of Saint-Jacques-of-CompostellePampelune is located on the Camino navarro Pèlerinage of Saint-Jacques-of-Compostelle, between Villava and Cizur Menor. It is the second stage according to the Guide of the Pilgrim of Aimery Picaud. The pilgrim enjoyed in Pampelune a special protection thanks to the privilege the Union. In the streets of Dormitalería to the nº 13 and Compañía with the nº 3 there were old people's homes for the pilgrims. At the 16th century one built a general hospital, today the museum of Navarre.
The miracle of the assIt is the sixth miracle of the Of miraculi sancti Jacobi. In 1100, a French pilgrim of Poitiers arrives at Pampelune with its family. They make halt in this city to rest and take again forces.
They were placed in a “hostal”. The woman of the pilgrim falls ill and they must remain longer than what was envisaged, until finally she dies. The hotel one, indicator which its host was likely to leave, claims a large amount of money to him while pleading that the stay had been long. Not having sufficient money to pay, the pilgrim leaves him his horse and goes back on the way with his two sons in low age. Making way it stops to request holy Jacques and to require of him of the assistance. At the exit of Pampelune, a worthy person approaches it and an ass lends to him to help it in its voyage. When they arrived finally at Santiago, the pilgrim had a vision of the Apostle in whom it recognized the worthy person of Pampelune. Of return to Pampelune, it took news of the landlord and learned that it had found death in an accident. People of the hostal declared that it had undergone a divine punishment because of its lack of charity towards the pilgrims.
Religious buildingsThe city counts several churches, among which:
- the Cathedral Santa Maria de Pampelune ,
- the church San Saturnino (or of San Cernín, or San Sernín) of the name of the evangelist of the city. It keeps a tradition of the pilgrimage of Compostelle. In full heart of an old district to the narrow streets, this composite building mingles the styles Romance (turns of brick) and Gothic (porch and vaults of the 13th century) with many posterior additions. It has an aspect of fortress flanked by robust turns.
the town hall ( Ayuntamiento ) has a frontage baroque of the end of the 17th century, which was rebuilt with its statues, balustrades and pediments.
- the museum of Navarre is high with the site of a hospital of the 16th century, of which it preserved the Renaissance door. The Roman epoch is represented by concise vestiges: funerary steles, inscriptions and pavements of mosaics coming from “villas” from the 2nd century and 4th century. The Romanesque art is in the high-speed motorboat with the capitals of the 12th century of the old cathedral of Pampelune: the unknown artist who carved the three biblical scenes of the capitals exposed in the middle of the room - Passion, Résurrection and History of Job - shows as meticulous in the details as powerful in the composition and brilliant in the invention. Gothic painting and Rebirth. The first three rooms reconstitute the interior of the palate of Oriz decorated with panels painted in greyness with the 16th century, reporting the history of Adam and Eve and the wars of Charles Quint. The following rooms expose many fragments of murals come from all the province: Artalz (13th century), Artajona and Pampelune (), Gallipienzo (), Dilates (15th century). If the kinds appear varied, one finds the feature slightly supported, the accumulation of the characters, hanchement pronounced, inherited the French miniature and illustrated by Juan Oliver which decorated in 1330 the refectory with the cathedral (room 24.) Among the masterpieces exposed in this museum, let us quote the box hispano-Arabic out of ivory coming from Cordoue of the beginning of the 11th century, and the portrait of the marquis de San Adrian painted by Goya. While leaving, to see, in the court, the large mosaic of the villa of Liédena of the 2nd century.
- Pascual Madoz, born in Pampelune on May 17th, 1806 and died in Genoa on December 15th, 1870, is a politician and a Spanish writer whose exemplary work is the sum that represents its Gazetteer of Spain published in the middle of the 19th century.
- Pablo de Sarasate (1844, Pampelune - 1908, Biarritz), violonist.
- Sabicas (1912-1990), guitarist flamenco.
- Osasuna, club of Football evolving/moving in the Liga.
- Portland cement San Antonio, club of Handball evolving/moving in the Liga ASOBAL
See also: Festivals of San Fermin
6 with the July 14th, the festivals of the Saint-Firmin gives place to noisy popular rejoicings. An atmosphere of jubilation reigns then in the city which sees doubling the number of its inhabitants. Many attractions are proposed to the Navarreses and to the tourists: concerts of folk music, Jazz, Txistu (Basque flute with three holes), Ball S, procession of the statue of Firmin Saint, etc
Great races of Taureau X are organized but the most spectacular demonstration and more the appraisal of the Pamplonicas remain the Encierro which takes place every morning with 8:00 the bulls which will even fight the evening are released in the streets according to a precise route, long 800 m, which lead them to the arenas in a few minutes. Young vêtus people of white with Scarf and red Belt and jackets of various colors go to the meeting of the powerful bulls sinking all horn S ahead, and start to run in front of them.
It exists there a version reduced of this festival called: San Fermin txiki. The date is fixed around on September 25th, and it is deprived tourists, but also of bulls. Sympathetic festival between inhabitants.
- Camino frances
- List of the bishops of Pampelune
- Site of the Town hall
- Pampelune in images
- Some infos in more
- Seen air
- Localization on the chart
- the way since Larrasoaña and Roncevaux
- Ruta del Baztan
- Pamplona on Navarrese Camino
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