See also: Pampa (homonymy)
The pampa (in Quechua “flat”) is a natural environment which forms a Biome type Prairies, savannas and bush moderate. It is a fertile Plaine covered with Herbe and deprived of Arbres that one finds inter alia in South America, where it covers a zone of almost 750.000 km ² including the provinces Argentine S of Buenos Aires, the pampa, Santa Fe, Córdoba, the Uruguay and the Rio Grande C Sul with the Brésil. These vast plains are only stopped by the Cordillère Ventiana close to Bahia Blanca (Argentinian) to 1300 m height. The climate is rainy per annum from 600 to 1200 mm throughout the year, making grounds appropriate to the Agriculture.
Its climate, as in all the moderated areas, is naturally changing. The winters are fresh with soft and the summers are very hot and wet. Precipitations are rather uniform throughout the year, but a little more abundant in summer. Annual precipitations are stronger close to the coasts and decrease regularly towards the west, in direction of the interior of the grounds. The rain, as of the end of spring and in summer, falls in the form of short and powerful downpours and from storms. The remainder of the year the majority of the rains occur when cold faces and depressions of storm come into contact. In winter, although the cold often causes night frosts, snow is quasi excluded.
La majority of the winters, it arrives that very light snow-covered precipitations occur in the Western areas furthest away from the ocean, but snow is completely exceptional close to the coasts.
Flora: steppe and meadow
Frequent fires make so that only small plants as the grass manage to push, and the trees are exceptional. The dominant types of vegetation are the perennial meadow and the grassy steppe in which the herbaceous species of the kind Stipa are particularly remarkable. L'" bleaches on grass pampas" ( Cortaderia selloana ) is a species symbol of the pampas. The vegetation is composed typically of perennial grasses (present all the year, winter like summer). Various zones and types of grass appear, related to the gradient of availability out of water. The pampas are the field of a large variety of species autochtones, although there is a quasi absolute absence of endemic trees, except along the important rivers. An exception however: The ombú or will belombra, a herbaceous tree of even disproportionate enormous size was in the beginning only interruption in this monotonous landscape.
The pampas know an important richness in cash. The animals which populate the pampa with the wire of the times completely adapted to the life within vast are extended from windy peerages. From this fact many animals went to live under ground to escape the predatory ones. There exists even a species of owl which builds its nest in burrows.
The animal world especially consists of birds, above all ongulés Fringillidae and herbivorous like the Guanaco, kind of LAMA. The Nandou S and the wolves with mane also populate the pampas. One finds there even Capybara, the largest rodents in the world. Many species are unfortunately threatened of extinction, from the human activities; one thus counts, in addition to 15 plant species, 15 species of rodents and 20 of birds, qualified species in danger.
See also: Fauna of Argentina
Central Argentina enorgueillit of powerful and prosperous agricultural activities, with cultures pushing on the pampas in the south and the west of Buenos Aires, until Córdoba. In particular, quantities collected on the surfaces dedicated to soya are in way to establish a record, according to the services of Food and Agriculture. A good part of these surfaces of high fertility are also used for the cattle breeding in meadow, primarily bovine.
These agricultural areas of high productivity (which are in fact of the pampas modified by the man) are particularly likely floods after strong falls of rain. Thus it is estimated that in October 2001, there was 35 000 km ² flooded in the Argentinas pampas. Buenos Aires recorded 250 millimetres of precipitations more or less this month, which constitutes more of the double of the normal average.
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