Founded on August 14th, 1947, Pakistan maintains the relations very tended with the India since its creation because of the division between these two countries of the territory of the Cachemire. It has the nuclear weapon.
The population is mainly Musulman E. A minority Hindou E tries to survive in spite of the religious intolerance officially adopted, whereas the Pakistani territory occupies the same sources of the Hindu religion, with the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro (see Religion harappienne).
The word “Pakistan” is a Néologisme. It can be interpreted is like the “country of pure” (of the Ourdou: pak meaning “pure” and stan meaning “country”, with I of connection), is like a Acronyme formed with the name of the provinces of the country: the '' P '' andjab, the '' has '' fghania (current frontier province of the North-West), the '' K '' to ashmir, the '' S '' ind and the Baloutchis '' tan ''.
Modern Pakistan is composed of four called parts principal provinces: the Pendjab, Sind, Balouchistan and the province of the Border of the North-West. It also governs the area of the Cachemire which is currently divided between Pakistan and India. The area of Indus was the site of several ancient cultures including/understanding Mehrgarh, one of the oldest known cities of the world, and the civilization of valley of Indus (of 2500 av. J. - C. with 1500 av. J. - C.) with Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
The waves of conquerors and migrants, including/understanding the Harap piens, Indo-Aryan, Persian S, Greek S, Sakas, Parthian S, Kouchan be, white Huns, Afghan, Arab S, Turkish S, and Mongolian S, were established in Pakistan throughout the centuries, influencing the autochtones. The country has a common history with India, Afghanistan and Iran antiques. The area is a crossroads of the historical commercial routes, including the Silk route.
On the territory which Pakistan occupies, the Civilization of the valley of Indus was assimilated in the middle of the second millenium before J. - C. with Aryan civilization, giving place to the Védisme. The successive empires and the kingdoms reigned on the area of the Persan empire Achéménide around 543 before J. - C., with Alexandre Large the into 326 before J. - C. and the empire of Mauryan. The kingdom indo-Greek founded by Demetrius de Bactria included Gandhara and Pendjab into 184 before J. - C., and reached its greater width under Ménandre Ier, establishing the period gréco-Buddhist with projections in the trade and the culture. The town of Taxila (Takshashila) became an important center of study of the ancient periods - the remainders of the city, located at the west of Islamabad, are one of the principal archaeological sites of the country.
See also: History of Pakistan
PolicyFollowing an electoral campaign with the paces of triumph Benazir Bhutto 1988, the first woman became in December to control a Muslim nation.
See also: Political of Pakistan
See also: Provinces and territories of Pakistan
Pakistan is a federation made up of five provinces ( Soubeh )): The Penjab, Sind, Baloutchistan, Serhad (or the NWFP: Province of the border of the North-West) and the Azad Cashmere (or Free Cashmere), in addition to the territory of the federal capital, the Kabileh alakeh (tribal territories managed by the federal government) and the Agency of Gilgit.
See also: Geography of Pakistan
See also: Economy of Pakistan
Largely agricultural, the country counts important a Textile industry. The Pakistani inherited: 8775 kilometers of: 42000 kilometers of the railway network of old the the British Indies. In 1989, accidents proved that the railroads were badly maintained and it is by the road that was made the main part of the exchanges in an underdeveloped economy.
Like its similar, the hydroelectric stopping of Tarbela on the Indus cures only partially the deficit of Pakistan in energy, the Hydro-electric power should be economic progress factor.
See also: Demography of Pakistan
See also: Culture of Pakistan
The current area of Pakistan was managed by various people and empires (Aryan, Perses, Ghaznavides, Seldjouks, Arabs, Rajputs, Moghols…). All these cultural influences left many traces. The site of Mohenjo-daro is an important site of the Civilization of the valley of Indus (see with Religion harappienne), the remainders of one of the largest cities of the Bronze Age, first in its advance of humanity.
Pakistan has a past and a cultural history very related to current India. That it is the music, the cinema, the gastronomy, the literature, the two countries are the heirs to the same common history. Mohamed Iqbal, resulting from a Hindu family recently converted with Islam (since a few centuries all the same, as the majority of the Moslems of souscontinent Indian…), poet, is the father of the idea of creation of the State Pakistanais, state Moslem. The large one representing Pakistani music soufie is Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, which made known the art of Qwali in the whole world. The country being very impresses of Islam soufi, the worship of the saints ( pirs ) there is very widespread, that in spite of a return of preserving Islam. The the USSR (annual procession of the saints) are moments of large devotion but also the occasion of popular holidays, during which there are concerts of mystical music. Pakistan also has a rich person architectural heritage inherited Moghols. Among most impressive, it there with the Badshaî masjid , which was a long time the second largest mosque in the world, out of red brick and white marble with encrusted mosaics, and undoubtedly one of the most beautiful mosques in the world. There are also the Shalimar bagh , the famous gardens of Shalimar dating from the time moghole, when Lahore was the imperial city. The town of Lahore remains always the cultural capital of the country. In the splendid mosque of Wazir Khan in Lahore, the training of the reading and writing passes, like elsewhere, by the verses of the Coran. Cinema industry there is very developed, in spite of a certain decline these last years due to the competition of the Indian cinema. However, Pakistan produces more films and television serials ( Dramma ) which reflect the Pakistani company with realism or humor and dissociate mawkish stories and stereotyped Bollywood. The theater also makes great great strides with contemporary authors like Shamshir Haider Shah.
ReligionThe Islam is the majority religion of Pakistan, with 97% of the population. 20% of the Pakistani are Shiite
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