Pablo Ruiz Picasso , born with Málaga (Spain) on October 25th, 1881 and dead on April 8th, 1973 with Mougins (France), was a Spanish artist . He is mainly known for his paintings, but was also sculptor and is one of the major artists of the 20th century. He is, with Georges Braque, the founder of the movement cubist.
ChildhoodPablo Picasso was the first child of Gift Jose Ruiz and Maria Picasso Lopez. Its complete name was Pablo Diego Jose Francisco of Paula Juan Nepomuceno Crispin Crispiniano of Santisima Trinidad Ruiz Blasco Picasso there Lopez . It chooses the name of his mother, or would have chosen it according to the painter génois Matteo Picasso (1794 Recco- 1879 Genoa) although it always denied it.
The father of Picasso was painter and professor of drawing at the school of Málaga called “San Telmo”. Pablo had two sisters but any brother.
The first paintingsPicasso thus began painting as of its more young age, and it carries out its first tables at eight years.
During the summer 1895, Pablo discovers Madrid and Barcelona. It spends its holidays to Malaga and returns by the sea to Barcelona. On this occasion, it carries out marines of the voyage. It is in the winter 1895, qu ' it carries out its first large academic fabric: the First Communion (Barcelona, Picasso Museum). In 1895, it enters to the school of the Art schools of Barcelona. Initially signing name of his father, Ruiz Blasco, it finally chooses to use the name of his mother, Picasso , as from 1901. It is in 1896, qu ' it paints Science and Charité (Barcelona, Musée Picasso). During the summer, it passes, again, its holidays in Malaga. Picasso painted there of the landscapes and the Bullfight S. In September 1897 it leaves for Madrid and triumphs, in October, with the contest of admission of the Académie San Fernando. It returns to Barcelona in June 1898, then share for Horta, the village of his friend Pallarès, located at the south of the Ebre, close to the town of Gandesa. February 1899, new return of Picasso to Barcelona, where it is integrated in the middle of “Els Four Gats”, coffee headlight of Bohemian, and becomes acquainted with Jaime Sabartès and Casagemas. Picasso exposes the 1900 to “Els Four Gats”. It leaves for Paris with Casagemas, in October, settles in the workshop of Nonell with Montmartre, meets the merchant Pedro Manach and Berthe Weill; some Pastel S sells to amateurs. It returns to Barcelona the December 20th, with Casagemas that Picasso takes along with him to Malaga. Mid-January 1901, Picasso leaves for Madrid. The February 17th, Casagemas commits suicide in Paris. In April, return to Barcelona, in May, departure for Paris and settles with 130 ter boulevard de Clichy, where Casagemas had its workshop.
Blue periodThe blue period corresponds to the years 1901 - 1904. Its name comes owing to the fact that blue is the dominant color of its tables of this time, which began with the suicide from his/her friend Carlos Casagemas, which explains why it is marked by the topics of death, from old age and poverty, which does not prevent it from being a satirist. The first table of this period was " the death of casgemas" to inspire by dead by his/her Spanish friend. The poor, the beggars and the blind men are largely described in the tables of this time: Rammed in Eden Concert (1903), Emptied It (1903), Las Back hermanas (1904). One can add that Picasso by painting its paintings expresses the melancholy. The pink period will be, it, merrier, it will use colors such as the pink red and it.
Between the June 25th and the July 14th 1901, Picasso and Iturrino make an exposure to the Vollard gallery, with Paris. Picasso becomes acquainted with the poet max Jacob. During the winter, it paints blue Autoportrait (Paris, Musée Picasso). At the end of January 1902, it goes to Barcelona. The gallery Berthe Weill, exposes 1st to the April 15th works of Lemaire and Picasso. It returns to Paris in October with Sebastien Junyer. And it shows for the first time its blue fabrics of the November 15th to the December 15th in an exposure of group at Berthe Weill. In January 1903, Picasso is again with Barcelona. In spring, it begins the fabric the life (Cleveland Museum off Fine Arts).
Starting from 1905, it settles with Paris, the Bateau-Lavoir , in the workshop left by Paco Durrio. There, it meets his first partner: Fernande Olivier. It is the beginning of the pink period . As previously, it is the use of the “rougées” colors which explains this denomination. The topics approached are the joy and existential concern. There remain melancholic person and dominated by the love; one finds there also many references to the world of the zoo and circus. It paints masks, harlequins, trainers and clown. Picasso privileged for this period work on the feature, the drawing, rather than on the color… It is also the time of pink maternities.
Picasso becomes acquainted with Guillaume Apollinaire and André Salmon. From February 25th to March 6th 1905, Picasso exposes to the gallery Serrurier, his first pink fabrics. In spring, it paints the Travelling acrobats (Washington, National Gallery). During the summer, it makes a stay with Schoorl in Holland, and painted there the Three Dutchwomen (Paris, National museum of Modern art, deposit with the Picasso Museum).
In autumn, it meets Gertrude and Leo Stein. One starts to find in his fabrics the topic of died of Arlequin. Gertrude Stein presents it to Matisse, during the winter 1906. The galerist Ambroise Vollard buys the majority of the pink fabrics in March. In May, it leaves with Fernande Olivier for Barcelona, then during the summer with Gósol, insolated village of high Catalogne. This stay will have an major impact in the work of Picasso, whose paintings and notebooks of Gósol mark the first steps of its revolution cubist of the following year. The topic of the two brothers appears.
The portrait of Gertrude Stein (New York, Museum off Modern Art), started in winter, is finally completed thanks to a painting of Cézanne, " Mrs Cézanne with the éventail" that Gertrude Stein had acquired with the living room of autumn in 1904.
African influencesThe period of Picasso under African influence (1907-1909) is marked at the beginning by the two figures of the right-sided of the Demoiselles of Avignon , which were inspired by the African masks that Picasso had.
CubismOf 1907 with 1914, it carries out with Georges Braque paintings which will be called “cubists”. They are characterized by a research on the geometry and the forms represented: all the objects are found divided and reduced into simple geometrical forms, often of the squares. That means in fact that object is not represented such as it appears obviously, but by codes corresponding to its known reality.
The cubism also consists in representing on a fabric in two dimensions an object of space. Picasso breaks up the image into multiple facets (or cubes, from where the name of Cubisme) and destroyed the forms of reality to plunge in sometimes strange figures (like a figure represented on a half of face, and the other on side).
Work founder of the Cubisme is the Young ladies of Avignon . This painting was started during the winter 1906-1907, and was completed at the beginning of July 1907.
At the beginning of the summer, Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler makes a first visit with the Bateau-Lavoir. In October, takes place a retrospective Cézanne with the Salon of autumn. During the winter 1908, Picasso painted the Friendship (Leningrad, Hermitage), Naked upright (Boston, Fine Arts Museum). It remains with Street-of-Wood, village to 60 km in the north of Paris, during the summer and in October, it proposes to the final version of the Three women (Leningrad, Ermitage). In May 1909, it goes to Barcelona, and Horta de Ebro with Fernande Olivier. There, it paints the Paysages (New York, Museum off Modern Art). In Paris, in September, he moves with the 11 Boulevard of Clichy, and carries out sculptures: Head of Fernande (Paris, Picasso Museum). In 1910, it makes the portraits of Ambroise Vollard (Moscow, Musée Pouchkine), of Uhde (St.Louis, Collection Pulitzer) and of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler (Chicago, Art Institute). Picasso leaves for Céret, village of French Catalonia, in July 1911. Fernande Olivier and Braque joins it in August. September 5th, it returns to Paris. Picasso is absent from room cubist with the Salon of autumn which begins on October 1st.
To the autumn, enters its life, Eva Gouel, which it calls “My pretty” in its fabrics. The first Joining S and the first assemblies are carried out during the winter 1912, Still life with the caned chair (Paris, Musée Picasso), Guitare (S) out of paperboard (Paris, Musée Picasso). May 18th, it starts from Céret for Avignon and on June 25th settles with Sorgues. He moves 242 Boulevard Raspail.
Picasso and Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler sign on December 18th a letter-contract. About on March 10th 1913, it goes with Eva Gouel, in Céret. The glass of wormwood is painted in spring 1914. After the departure for Avignon, in June, it makes a return to the portrait, in July. Éva dies on December 14th 1915.
Russian BalletDuring the First World War, Picasso remains with Rome with Jean Cocteau, starting from the February 17th 1916. It settles Via Margutta, from where it sees the Villa Médicis. In addition to many drawn portraits, it paints the Italian , the Harlequin and woman with the collar . In May, Cocteau presents Diaghilev to Picasso. He works as decorator for the ballet Parade of Léonide Massine and the Russian Ballets of Serge de Diaghilev, on a music of Erik Satie. He meets Stravinski and the dancer Olga Khokhlova who became his wife. In a decorative vein, Picasso carried out several portraits of it and their son ( Paul in Pierrot in 1925).
At the end of March 1917, it travels to Naples and Pompei and returns to Paris, at the end of April. The May 18th, the first of Parade takes place in Châtelet. Then in June, Picasso leaves for Madrid with the troop Diaghilev and Olga, and on July 12th, a banquet is offered in its honor to Barcelona.
January 23rd with the February 15th 1918, Picasso exposes with Matisse at Paul Guillaume. It Marie with Olga with the Russian church of Paris, the July 12th. Cocteau, max Jacob and Apollinaire is the witnesses. During a stay with Biarritz, it paints the bathers (Paris, Musée Picasso).
In May 1919, Picasso leaves for London to work with the ballet the Tricorn on a music Manuel of Falla. During the summer, it remains with Biarritz at Mrs. Errazuriz then settles with Olga with Saint-Raphaël (Riviera).
His/her Paulo son is born the February 4th 1921. During the summer, it settles with Olga and Paulo with Fontainebleau. It painted there the Women with the fountain (Paris, Picasso Museum and New York, Museum off Modern Art) and the three musicians (New York, Museum off Modern Art and Philadelphia, Museum off Art). In June 1922, at the time of a stay with Dinard (Brittany, Coast of the English Channel), it paints Two women running on the beach ( the race ) (Paris, Musée Picasso). Then, in December, it carries out the decoration for the Antigone of Cocteau, created by Charles Dullin with the Théâtre of the Workshop. In 1923, it makes a new stay estival on the Riviera (Cape d' Antibes) and painted the panpipes (Paris, Musée Picasso). And it is in 1924, in summer, whereas it is with the villa the Watchtower with Juan-the-Pines (Riviera), that it makes its Carnet of abstract drawings and that it paints Paul as a harlequin (Paris, Musée Picasso).
For this period of the Years 1920, in a climate of fashionable recognition, it painted paintings marked by a return to the figuration and the classicism: Three Women with the fountain (1921), and of the works inspired by mythology like the Panpipes (1923).
SurrealismThe year 1925 was that of a radical rupture in the production of the painter. It painted very paintings showing violent one of the creatures deformed, convulsives, taken in the snares of a hysterical rage: Woman in an armchair (1926) and sitted Bather (1930). The influence of the surrealist poets was undeniable in this will to depict interior the personal Enfer. However it adopted an approach more pragmatic than that of the “dream copied on the fabric” of the surrealist ones. In June - July 1925, it completes the dance (Tate Gallery) and paints the kiss (Picasso Museum, Paris). The November 14th, it takes part in the first surrealist exposure of the Pierre Gallery. In 1926, it makes to the painter and his model (Paris, Musée Picasso), the Guitare (S) with nails , (Paris, Musée Picasso). It is in January 1927 which it meets Marie-Therese Walter. He carries out the great joining of the Minotaure (Paris, National museum of Modern art) in January 1928, and with the autumn, carries out iron sculptures with Julio González. It is in spring 1929 that it paints the woman with the garden (Paris, Musée Picasso). It is the year also of these last holidays with Dinard. It paints the naked Grand with the red armchair (Paris, Musée Picasso) and in February 1930: Crucifixion . With the autumn 1930, Marie-Therese moves with 44, rue de la Boétie. It buys the castle of Boisgeloup, close to Gisors, 80 km in the North-West of Paris, in June, and in May 1931 there will settle. Two figures at the edge of the sea (Paris, Picasso Museum) is painted in January 1931, and Still life in March, on a pedestal table .
This year, sees the edition of two major books: Metamorphoses of Ovide (Lausanne, Skira) and the unknown Chief of work of Balzac (Paris, Ambroise Vollard). In 1932, Young girl in front of the mirror (New York Museum off Modern Art) is finished. A retrospective with Small the Georges gallery, then in Kunsthaus of Zurich, takes place in June. Picasso works in Boisgeloup with the heads carved according to Marie-Therese and the series of drawings according to the Crucifixion of Grünewald.
The first number of Minotaure with a cover of Picasso, appears the May 25th 1933. It spends the summer holidays 1933 to Cannes with Olga and Paulo. In September, it paints with Boisgeloup, the Death of the bullfighter (Paris, Musée Picasso). From June to September 1934, it makes series of bullfights, painted, drawn and engraved. In August, he travels in Spain with Olga and Paulo, and goes to the bullfights Burgos and of Madrid. He visits the Museum of Catalan Art of Barcelona. He carries out a series of sculptures to moulded texture: Woman with the foliage , Woman with the orange (Paris, Picasso Museum). To spring 1935, the Pierre gallery exposes stuck papers. Minotauromachie is engraved. It separates from Olga in June, and the October 5th, is born Maya, girl of Marie-Therese. The March 25th 1936 sees the secret departure of Picasso with Marie-Therese and Maya for Juan-the-Pines It makes gouaches and drawings on the topic of Minotaure. This same year, it is named Directeur of the Musée of Prado. At the beginning of August, Picasso leaves for Mougins and Dora Maar joined there.
Guernica and pacifismFollowing the Bombardment, the April 26th 1937, of Guernica during the Spanish Civil war, horrified by this crime, Picasso launches out in the creation of one of its most famous works: Guernica . It symbolizes all the horror of the war and the anger felt by Picasso with died of many innocent victims, caused by the bombardment of the planes Nazis at the request of the Général Free.
Chez him in Paris during the Second world war, Picasso would have met in its workshop of the German officers very interested by his work. The officers seeing celebrates it painting Guernica would have asked him: “It is you who did that? ”, Picasso would have answered: “Not… you”. Moreover to the German visitors of the years 1940, it distributed photographs of Guernica , narguant them of one “Carry them. Memories! memories! ” table with the museum, the city the gratifia then of the title of citizen of honor. The Belgian poet Louis-Philippe Kammans quotes this history in his poem Around a museum devoted to the museum of the Art schools:
… And Bâlois in a referendum populates it
Sunday decided to give eight million
for two beautiful Picasso which is worth this sum
and that they will cherish Sundays in round…
The Picasso museums
- Museum Picasso (Barcelona)
- Museum Picasso (Horta de Sant Joan)
- Museum Picasso (Lucerne)
- Museum Picasso (Málaga)
- Museum Picasso (Münster)
- Museum Picasso (Paris)
- Museum Picasso de Vallauris
- Museum Picasso d' Antibes
- Paulo Picasso (February 4th, 1921 - June 5th, 1975) - with Olga Khokhlova
- Maya Widmaier-Picasso (September 5th, 1935 -) - with Marie-Therese Walter
- Claude Picasso (May 15th, 1947) - with Francoise Gilot
- Paloma Picasso (April 19th, 1949 -) - with Francoise Gilot
|Random links:||Roger and me | Étiennette of Longwy-Metz | Aellopos fadus | David Strauss | Brain Dead 13|