The République of Ouzbékistan ( Uzbek O' zbekiston Respublikasi in , Russian РеспубликаУзбекистан in ) is a country of Central Asia of almost 27 Soviet republic , inhabitant million old, independent State since the August 31st 1991, surrounded by the Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyzstan, the Tadjikistan, the Afghanistan and the Turkménistan. Its capital is Tachkent, a metropolis of 2,3 million inhabitants.
See also: History of Ouzbékistan
Throughout its history, the territory of current Ouzbékistan was dominated most of the time by the great surrounding empires of Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Mongols or Russians to become a State with whole share in 1991.
Between third century BC and the 2nd century after J. - C., the Sogdiane and the Bactriane fall into the hands from the Royaume gréco-bactrien, of the wandering people of the Yuezhi, the Scythes, the Parthes or of the Koutchéens Bouddhiste S. Under the latter, the sogdiane city of Samarkand becomes a turntable of Large the Silk route between the China and the Europe.
Thereafter, between 2nd and the 6th centuries, current Ouzbékistan is found in possession of the Persian Sassanides, then Huns white come from the borders of China.
Ouzbékistan is occupied by Turks (Köktürks) between the Life and VIIIe centuries.
The Arab , carried out by the troops of the general Qutayba ibn Muslim conquered current Ouzbékistan towards 712 whose control was consolidated following the Bataille of Catholic students. They found the Islam near the people then centrasiatic practitioner the Zoroastrisme.
The large Mongolian conqueror Gengis Khan took Samarkand in 1220 by reversing the Khwârazm-Shahs whose reign was of very short duration. He bequeathed then the country of My wara' un-Nahr to his second wire, Tchagataï.
Tamerlan (1336 - 1405), also called Amir Timour, descendant of Gengis Khan, born close to Samarkand, built a vast empire including several countries of the Central Asia of which Ouzbékistan. Its empire fell in 1507 to the hands from the Uzbek from the dynasty from the Chaybanides. Tamerlan left after him great cultural, artistic and scientific achievements, mainly with Samarkand and Hérat. The 15th century was called Renaissance timouride, in particular under the reigns of Shah Rukh, Oulough Beg and Husayn Bayqara.
The Chaybanides, Mongolian Moslem dynasty, meet in current Ouzbékistan in 1429 under a name of ulus (Khanat) Uzbek. It is the first time that the name " ouzbek" appears in the history, it holds of the name of Özbeg, prince Mongolian of the 13th century which established the Islam within the Horde of Gold.
The Russians appear in the area at the end of the 19th century, after a fulgurating victory of the troops of the general Mikhaïl Tcherniaïev. They initially subject in 1884 the khanats of Bukhara and Khiva, and then is current Ouzbékistan, including Tachkent (1865). The conquered territories were gathered in an administrative unit called Turkestan. In March 1876, Khanat of Kokand falls in its turn in the hands from Russian.
Ouzbékistan as a republic and a single and distinct nation exists only since October 27th 1924, when various territorial entities in the Central Asia were joined together in the Soviet socialist République of Ouzbékistan. In 1925, Ouzbékistan integrates the the USSR.
During the Second world war, Ouzbékistan accommodated several hundreds of Soviet thousands of families fleeing the invasion hitlérienne in the west, of which multiple orphans of war, which accelerated the Russianization of the republic, especially the capital Tachkent. Part of heavy industries of the European part of the the USSR was also evacuated there. These factories remained in Ouzbékistan after the war, contributing to the industrialization of the republic.
A phenomenon which largely worked the history of Ouzbékistan in years 60-80 was the intensive development of the culture of the Coton. Under the pressure of Moscow which encouraged to produce cotton more and more, the Uzbek leaders developed a system of falsifications of the statistics. The Uzbek leader of the time, Charaf Rachidov and his entourage were implied in the business of the imaginary cotton which got gold profits to them (one spoke at the time of a " Maffia of the coton" or " Maffia ouzbèke"). In spite of the width of this business, Charaf Rachidov is appreciated by the current Uzbek capacity as a leader who invested much in the development of the republic and which could obtain from Moscow a certain autonomy.
Since 1990, the country is controlled by the authoritative president, Islom Karimov. Following the failure of the signature of a new agreement constituting the renovated USSR from which he was an enthusiastic defender, the August 31st 1991 Ouzbékistan declares independence.
During the first years of independence, the Uzbek government is consolidated under a narrow presidential supervision. The new country reinforces its presence on the international scene, adheres to UNO and with other large international organizations, opens direct air links with several countries, starts great rebuilding works urban and road, adopts accessible measures for the foreign investors.
Under the presidency of Karimov, all the opposition parties (of which most influential are Erk (Will) and Birlik (Unit)) were prohibited, least the running dissenting one - repressed. The media and all the aspects of the social life, politico-economic and even cultural are under a narrow supervision and censures apparatus of State. In the 1999 and 2004 country undergoes the waves of terrorist attacks allotted to the islamist radicals. May 13rd, 2005 the Uzbek government represses in blood a popular insurrection in the town of Andijan.
See also: Political of Ouzbékistan
The Constitution of December 8th 1992 instituted a mode of the presidential type, with a Parlement become bicameral at the end of 2004 (Olii Majlis and Sénat). Ouzbékistan has a strong presidential regime.
The principal members of the Executive power are it:
- President of the Republic: Islom Karimov (since March 1990)
- Prime Minister: Shavkat Mirziyoyev (named in December 2003)
- Foreign Minister: Vladimir Norov
The Republic of Ouzbékistan is member of UNO, SOEC, UNESCO, WHO, the Worldwide organization of tourism, etc on December 21st 1991 Ouzbékistan becomes adherent member with the Communauté of the independent States, gathering 12 of the 15 old republics of the USSR. Since January 27th 2006 it belongs to the Eurasian Economic community, and since August 15th 2006, member of the Organization of the Treaty of collective security, sign of bringing together with Moscow.
165 States recognized Ouzbékistan, whose 103 drew up diplomatic relationship with him. More than forty diplomatic missions their functions with Tachkent exert.
With a surface of 447.000 square kilometers (roughly size of the Spain or California), divided between the desert plain, the basins and the Oasis and dominated in the east by the Mountain S, Ouzbékistan extends on 1.425 kilometers from west in is and 930 kilometers of north in the south. Frontier with the south-west of the Turkménistan, the Kazakhstan and the Sea of Aral in north, of the Tadjikistan and the Kyrgyzstan in the east, Ouzbékistan is not only one of the greatest States of Central Asia, it is also only having a common border with the four others. Ouzbékistan divides also a border with the Afghanistan in the south.
Ouzbékistan is a primarily desert country of which only 10% of the grounds are exploited by the man (intensive agricultural cultures and irrigated valleys). The Kizil-Koum, one of the Deserted S widest of the Central Asia, covers most of the territory in the west of Ouzbékistan. Part of the Désert of Karakoum also crosses the country to south-west.
The Amou-Daria and the Syr-Daria are the most important rivers of Ouzbékistan and of the Central Asia and is thrown in the Mer of Aral. The overall length of Amou-Daria is of 1437 km, that of Syr-Daria is of 2137 km. To the North-East and the south the chains extend from Tian Shan and Guissar-Alay. The highest top of the country is the Adelunga Toghi which culminates with 4301 meters.
The climate is of type continental, dry and very contrasted, relatively cold in winter (until - 10° in certain areas), very heat the summer (+ 35° with 40°, even more).
The Sea of Aral, divided between Ouzbékistan and the Kazakhstan, sudden since the Sixties a spectacular reduction, situation which represents a true ecological disaster henceforth for the area. Between 1960, when it covered 68.000 km ², and 2000, its surface was divided by two. The current evolution lets predict the total disappearance of the Mer of Aral at the horizon of 2025.
SubdivisionsOuzbékistan is divided into 12 areas ( viloyat , plural viloyatlar ), a city ( shahri ) and a republic (area) autonomous of Karakalpakistan ( respublikasi ):
- Toshkent Shahri (Tachkent)
- Andijon Viloyati (Andijon)
- Buxoro Viloyati (Bukhara)
- Farg `ona Viloyati (Ferghana)
- Jizzakh Viloyati (Jizzakh)
- Namangan Viloyati (Namangan)
- Navoiy Viloyati (Navoiy)
- Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi)
- Samarqand Viloyati (Samarkand)
- Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston)
- Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz)
- Toshkent Viloyati (Tachkent)
- Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
- the Republic of Karakalpakistan (Qoraqalpog `iston Respublikasi) (Nukus), i.e. the republic of Karakalpaks.
The national capital, Tachkent, in addition to being the seat of sound viloyat, is also, administratively, a city.
See also: Demography of Ouzbékistan
Ouzbékistan is the country of Central Asia more populated (nearly 26 million inhabitants). The Uzbek ethnic, people of Turkish language, constitute officially nearly 80% of the population. The Russian ethnic represent the most important minority with 6% (in constant reduction since the middle of the Eighties). The other minorities are consisted the Kazakh Tadjiks 5,5%, 4%, the Tatars 4%, the Karakalpaks 1,9%, the Korean 1,1%, as well as the Kyrgyz and the Turks meskhètes. The essence of the Russian minority lives with Tachkent and in the other industrial centers. The Inhabitants of Tajik are concentrated in the historical cities of Bukhara and Samarkand. Karakalpaks reside mainly in the autonomous republic of the Karakalpakistan. However, various reports/ratios (in particular of specialists based in the United States and in Europe) affirm that the Tadjike minority is much more present in Ouzbékistan than that is not officially allowed.
The official language of the country is the Uzbek , spoken by 17 million people in the country (65,6% of the population). The Russian , mainly with Tachkent and in the big cities, remains an important language of communication. The languages Inhabitant of Tajik E and Karakalpak E are also largely used locally.
The Moslem Religion (of rite Sunnite) is majority (nearly 90% of the population) in Ouzbékistan. The other religions represented are the Orthodoxie (9%), the Judaïsme, the Luthérianisme, the Catholicisme and the church Baptist. The country is officially Laïc.
37% of the Uzbek population live in the cities, 63% in the countryside. It is primarily young, the working-age population accounts for only 54% of the total (more 7% of reprocessed).
- Population growth: 1,65% (estimates 2004)
- Life expectancy: 64 years
- Rate of elimination of illiteracy: 99,3%
- Index of human development (Classification UNO): 107e
EconomyOuzbékistan is an agro-industrial country. 38% of the active population are occupied in agriculture mainly irrigated (cultures of the Coton, of the Fruit S, of early products, of the Riz, of the alfalfa, the Vigne S or of the fodder Céréale S, breeding Ovin and Bovin and Sériciculture).
The country also has important mining richnesses (Natural gas, Uranium, Cuivre, Pétrole) what contributed to the Industrialization of the country in the post-war period and added up recently a good part of the Investissement S foreigners in the sectors of the mining extraction, the Raffinage of oil or of the agricultural machinery and the assembly of cars.
As of independence, president Karimov made the choice of a strategy of gradual reform in particular aiming at reaching energy and food self-sufficiency country. However, the economic growth remains subjected to regular fluctuations. Tributary of the export earnings (Cotton and Gold to a large extent), the development of the economy ouzbèke was slowed down by the results in half-tone of the harvest of the cotton whose Ouzbékistan is the 4th world producer.
Moreover, without true strategy of reforms, the authorities of the country multiplied the false step (like, for example in the field of the exchanges, having refused the convertibility of the national currency until 2003) and of the restrictive actions and interventionists towards the small and medium-size companies, which involved a stagnation in the medium of the businesses. Only the small shop of street and the companies having the privileged right of faires the operations of importation could thrive while the general economic fabric remained either official de facto, or under a strong influence of the State. One will also note a strong influence on the new economic sectors with high added value, especially in the Tachkent capital, exerted by the girl of president Karimov, Goulnora.
The economic situation of Ouzbékistan remains indeed fragile: the adoption of the free convertibility of the national currency in October 2003 should however create an environment much more favorable to the overseas investments. Certain positive macroeconomic results are to be noted (Inflation and devaluation of the currency relatively controlled in particular). The political warming with the Russia, started in 2005, had as a result the massive investments of the Russian companies on the Uzbek ground (in the field of energy, telecommunications, the civil aviation or of agroalimentary), as well as the substantial rise of the bilateral commercial exchanges (3 billion dollars in 2006, +42% compared to 2005).
However, Tachkent hesitates to go from before in the field of the Privatization S of the agricultural sector which always accounts for 1/3 of GDP and of the Active population. In fact, the government delays a true liberalization of the economy by fear of its consequences on a social fabric already strongly degraded (27% of the population live in lower part of the Poverty line and the average revenues are with the fall since 1997) and to preserve the interests of some influential economic actors, close to the elites to the capacity. The awkward offensive, as from the summer 2004, against the informal economy was at the origin of important social movements.
- GDP (2003): 16 billion dollars
- GDP per capita (2003): 1.700 dollars
- Growth rate (2004): 7,5%
- Trade balance: 1 billion dollar
- Main customers: CEI: Russia 16,7%, Ukraine 4,7%, Kazakhstan 3,1%, Others: Switzerland 8,3%, the United Kingdom 7,2% Korea 3,3%, France 2,3%,
- Leading vendors: CEI: Russia 15,8%, Kazakhstan 7,3%, Ukraine 6,1%, Others: Korea 9,8%, the United States 8,7%, Germany 8,6%, France 2,9%
- Share of the principal branches of industry in the GDP:
- agriculture: 38%
- industry: 26,3%
- services: 35 %
Currency (since 1994): the Uzbek Sum (UZS) = 100 tiyin.
Festivals and bank holidays
Arts and CultureWorld heritage of UNESCO in Ouzbékistan:
- 1990 Itchan Kala
- 1993 Historical center of Bukhara
- 2000 Historical center of Shakhrisyabz
- 2001 Samarkand - crossroads of cultures
See also: Culture of Ouzbékistan
- See also: Art timouride
Uzbek applied arts
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