Orthographical Corrections of French
With many recoveries during the last centuries, the French Orthographe - just like orthographies of the other languages - knew reforms, more or less important.
The last spelling reform goes back to 1990 and adopted in all the francophonie, but like official recommendation, without being imposed. As from 2007, after many years of blur, she is taught in the French schools, according to the new programs.
The French Orthography forever ceased evolving/moving, according to the principle which the use determines the rule. One can quote of many examples of reforms.
In 1740, a quarter with a third of the words change orthography.
- Of many modifications intervenes in first half of the 19th century ( I worts becomes I had… ). What is explained, knowing that the oi decided, at the time, about “oué” (still used pronunciation with the Quebec).
- Reform of 1835: one writes from now on the T in the plural in the words of the type Enfans and in the conjugation oi passes to have ( étoit becomes was )
- At the beginning of the 20th century, the hyphen replaces the apostrophe in grandmother , large-mass , etc
- the decree of February 26th, 1901 (stopped Leygues) proposes to tolerate multiple orthographies for the official contests and dictations in France. But it applied forever.
- In 1975 is published the decree Haby, version “renovated” of the decree of 1901, which also proposes tolerances in the dictations and contests official in France (cf Tréma in French)
Corrections of 1990In October 1989, Michel Rocard, then Prime Minister of France, sets up the Superior council of the French language in Paris. It then charges with the experts - among whom linguists, representatives of the French Academy and large manufacturers of dictionaries - with proposing regularizations on some points (the hyphen, the plural of the compound words, the circumflex accent, the past participle, various anomalies).
Quickly, the experts put themselves at work. Their conclusions are submitted to the organizations of Politique linguistics Belgian and Québécois. They are also subjected to the French Academy, which endorses them unanimously, but does not include them in its work and precise:
- “the current orthography remains of use, and the “recommendations” of the Superior council of the French language relate only to words which could be written in a different way without constituting inaccuracies nor to be regarded as faults. ”
This reform is discussed much in the press. In front of this countryside against the spelling reform, a certain number of actors move back.
Today, orthographical corrections are officially recommended , without however being constraining. They were in any case not adopted by the French Academy. They are in their vast majority unapplied in formal writings, but the popular use can agree with them. Thus, many people do not use circumflex accents where corrections allow it (words as limps , island , it likes , etc). For the word event , for example, a follow-up on Internet using search engines shows that the new orthography accounts for already 25% of the turned over pages. Corrections entered the last edition in the course of the dictionary of the Academy (the ninth), the dictionaries Hachette and New Littré, the data-processing correctors such that of Microsoft. ProLexis proposes with the user to choose the orthography which it will employ. The dictionaries Larousse and Robert do it gradually. In spite of that, editors remain with the old orthography: Grasset & Fasquelle employs the circumflex accent for the title Which knows Mrs Royal? , appeared in 2007.
Association for information and research on the orthographies and the written forms (AIROÉ) for France, Association for new orthography (ANO) for Switzerland, Association for the application of orthographical corrections (APARO) for Belgium, the Québécois Group for the modernization of French (GQMNF) for Quebec, the Coalition for the application of orthographical corrections (CARO) joined together within the Network for the new orthography of French (RENOUVO), diffuse regularly on their respective sites or in their reviews of information on the subject.
Modifications suggestedCorrections of which it is question in this article (1990) introduced 10 rules of modifications on proposal of the Superior council of the French language:
There is, moreover, of many orthographical modifications on various words ( carriage on the model of plow , corolla on the model of small beast ).
These “rules” are however only recommendations. They are not any obligatory, and it is one of the reasons which make that they are largely ignored; without obligation in fact the acquired practices perdurent. Another point of view is that any reform being obligatory would have been seen opposing an active resistance, at least in France.
Diffusion and teaching of orthographical correctionsFormerly, the diffusion of the spelling reforms was done near the printers and of the men of letters…
Today, the situation is without different question, since the orthography relates to everyone. Also, the means deployed to diffuse orthographical corrections had to evolve/move.
orthographical corrections were published in France with the Official journal.
- They were the subject of circulars concerning their teaching in Switzerland and Belgium.
- In France, in teaching, “one will be incrira within the framework of the orthography rectified”, according to the programs published in 2007 by the minister of education.
- Évolution of technologies obliges, a Web site was set up. It gathers information bound for the general public (presentation of the new rules, FAQ…) and of the professionals.
- data-processing correctors (Microsoft, OpenOffice.org, Antidote, ProLexis…) are updated.
- Ratio of 1990 on orthographical corrections
- List of the alternatives of title of article of Wikipédia in conformity with the attempt at reform of 1990
- German Spelling reform
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