A organization is
- a whole of Individu S in interaction,
- gathered within a controlled structure ,
- having a communication system to facilitate the information flow,
- with an aim of answering objective needs and of reaching given.
Types of organizations according to their structures
According to the Operations research, the majority of the human organizations fall coarsely, on the level of their structures of operation (often translated by a Organigramme), in several types. These standard of structures is the subject of this section; on the other hand, the methods of organization are covered by the article Organization of work.
The organization with lucrative goal
An Organization is a group of individual who constitutes himself to conclude a class action suit and to achieve a common goal. It must then distribute the whole of the tasks to be achieved between the members of the group and to adopt mechanisms of coordinations. When the organization wants to perennialize, or consider the activitées lucrative ones, it must obtain a legal framework.
Pyramids or hierarchy
A hierarchy is a vertical structure with an intermediate leader or chief and levels to the people of the base. It is the traditional Bureaucratie. Usually one assembles by the Ancienneté, or by obtaining Autorité on more people.
The pyramids are an effective way to obtain reproducible results because they have the shortest distance since the decision maker to the executant.
They suffer from defects of communication and of supervision because the organization is as good as its weakest bond. They miss creativity because of the bad communication (“why” is often lost).
The traditional solution to the problem of the communication is a magazine which reviews the totality of the company, with a certain frequency. A good plan is to make send email by each member each week, stating that it did, its projects, and problems. Each chief makes a summary and sends it. And so on towards the top.
The hierarchies were satirized in the Principle of Peter into 1969 which introduces the term hierarchiology and the concept that, “in a hierarchy, each employee tends to reach his level of incompetence”.
A particularly rigid type is that of the principle of Führer.
The study of the hierarchy connected with the church is called Ecclésiologie.
Committees or jurys
It consists of a group of pars which decides as a group, perhaps per vote. The difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of this last are in general assigned to make carry out or to lead later actions to the decision making of the group. These forms are also used when the unanimity is necessary.
The Méthode Condorcet proved that these meetings have results better than the simple chance but a delicate and difficult balance lies in the choice of this delegation.
Of course the not structured committees can digress without leading to decisions, also the application of the Règles of Robert assistance to make them effective.
A member of the personnel or a trans-functional calculus team
A member of the personnel helps a Expert to carry out a project. For this purpose, a person in charge of the personnel decides if a task is ordinary or not. If it is in attributions of a member of the personnel, the latter will act like a minor expert. It fixes the conditions of the realization and checks the stages.
If the problem is except field, the person in charge indicates it to his organization. He passes the resolution to an expert and educates the personnel - transforming this activity into ordinary activity and even if possible of routine.
The members of the personnel act quickly and effectively treat the obligations but with less safety than of the committees or matrices. For this reason, the companies often prefer to use this method.
The members of the personnel give up easily, generally in a bad selection of the candidates. The chief of Dilbert is an not-expert trying to make function of the personnel. In a “trans-functional calculus team” like an executive committee, the person in charge must be an not-expert, because of many elements of expertise are necessary. Also: the personnel managers can be disorganized, to have favorites, or not to know what must be allotted to the expert.
The executive committees can be experts among the personnel: to choose people.
In theory, it is the perfect organization. A hierarchy is “functional” and guarantees that each type of expert in the organization well is involved and evaluated by a person in charge who is an super-expert in the same branch. The other direction is “executive” or operational and tries to have the projects supplemented by the experts.
The matrices are the only known organizations which can regularly create complex products technically like planes and their engines.
The problem is that to pass by the decisional channels takes too much time. To obtain approval for to often make anything requires the agreement of each type of expert and their persons in charge!
The matric organization can extend to several companies functioning in symbiosis (subcontractors, management of great projects). It is then the organization in Réseau. NASA was pionnière of such a system. The use of the Internet, allowing the immediate access of each entity common information, facilitates this operating process.
This organization has a intense Compétition. Bad parts of the organization are unemployed whereas the good ones receive more activities to be made. Each one is paid for what it carries out and operates a mini-company which must obtain a Profit, or to be sanctioned. For example: the managers at the top invest and if the result is bad one holds account of it, and thus for all the sectors which must sell with the others.
This type of competition known as law of the jungle or contest must be set up with the greatest care because the resources can be wasted and the relations become bitter.
They are consisted a mixture of those indicated above. A very good organizer can make them function, for one period.
One cannot base oneself above in the long run because success exceeds the capacity of the genius because in particular of the particular cases.
An emergent model of organization of the human behaviors, based on a fusion of the concepts of chaos and Order (from where “chaordic”). Anarchism and the wiki would be alternatives. Rather utopian model.
Thinkers of the organization
- Organization learning
- Organization of work
- Sociology of the organizations
- Theory of the organizations
- Factors of organisational performance
Map-bms: Organisasi Simple: Organization
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