The olive oil is the Fat contents extracted the Olive S (Fruit S of the olive-tree) at the time of the Trituration in a Moulin with oil. It is one of the base of the Mediterranean kitchen (or mode crétois).
UseIt is a greasy substance frequently used in the Mediterranean kitchen. Its organoleptic characteristics vary according to the Terroir and from the agronomic practices , the variety (or cultivar), and from the stage of maturity to harvest.
The olive oil can be used as well raw (in Sauce S for salad or in the place of the Beurre in the Pâte S for example) that cooked (for the Cuisson of Viande S or Légume S or for the Friture). It is important nevertheless not to use it at too high temperature (more than 210 °C) beyond which it worsens, but that is more than the average temperature of crackling, in the 180 °C.
It has beneficial properties for the Santé, in particular on the cardiovascular level, thanks to its content of Vitamine has, Vitamine E and in monoinsaturés fatty-acids. The benefits related to the Vitamine S are especially observed during cold oil consumption, as in salads, because the Vitamine S are destroyed beyond 40 °C. Compared to the other unsaturated fatty-acids, the olive oil is rather stable with cooking and guard in this case its effects beneficial on the Cholestérol. It is the basic fat contents of the Mediterranean Régime (or Régime crétois).
The olive oil is known since highest antiquity: the Greek antiques and the Romains already used it for their kitchen and their products Cosmétique S, as well as the Hebrew , at the time where the Temple existed, to light to them Chandelier.
Today, it is a consumable current, but the amateurs will choose bottles whose price competes sometimes with large the Vin S. Indeed, several olive oils are classified in Appellation of controlled origin (AOC).
TastingThe organoleptic characteristics are gathered in three headings pricipales:
Flavor S: the whole of the aromatic feelings of an oil constitutes its fruity, one determines of it the intensity with tasting, its category (fruity ripe, fruity green, fruity black) and its analogical description (the Pomme, the Tomate recalls…).
Feeling S Kinesthetic S and Tactile S: an oil of Olive can present a specific feeling, the ardence (or pricking), and of the differences in consistency. One determines the intensity of prickly with tasting, the consistency can be the subject of comments, but there does not exist organoleptic scale for this feeling.
None the feelings above is regarded as a defect. The defects recognized by the professionals are:
- the rancid (Oxidation), the mildewed, been unemployed (excessive fermentation of olives in heap), the binds S (fermentation of the particles of pulp in the oils not filtered with or without sedimentation).
These defects have like common point in their origins an insufficient attention paid to the quality of work, and in their consequences a disappearance of the attributes land-mark and prickly.
Characteristics and composition
The characteristics of the olive oil are the following ones:
- not of car-ignition: 343°C
- not of boiling: 300°C
- point flash: 225°C
- not of smoke: 210° against 180°c for the normal temperature of crackling.
- not of disorder: between 5 and 10° C.
- point melting: -6 °C.
- density: 0,92 (1 liter of olive oil weighs 920 grs approx.).
- viscosity (to 20 °C): 84 CP (centipoise).
- index of refraction: 1.4677-1.4705
- index of saponification: 184-196.
- caloric intake: 9 calories per gram
- conservation: the olive oil grows rancid less quickly thanks to its iodine index relatively low: 78/88 compared with 83/98 for the groundnut oil and 120/132 for the sunflower oil. It is preserved better if it is stored with the expenses and is protected from the light. It is preferable to consume it in the two years following its manufacture.
The olive oil is made up from approximately 99% of fat contents. The 1% remainder constitute the minor compounds; it acts primarily (by order of importance): Squalène, alcohols triterpenic, Sterol S, phenol S, and derivatives of the Tocopherol.
The Fat contents of the Huile of Olive is made up of Triglycéride S. Those consist of fatty-acids of various kinds, of which the distribution is characteristic of the olive oil, and on a level of more thorough detail, various varieties or place of production. When triglycerides are degraded, the fatty-acids which constituted them are seconded and wander freely to oil: it are then known as “fatty-acids free” . Their percentage in oil is what one calls “acidity” oil, and expresses itself in " grams of free oleic acid for 100 grams of oil " . This acidity is never perceived in the form of acid taste, but in the form of such or such degradation, such as for example a musty taste.
- Source: Database FATG-BD01, Olivier D., Pinatel C., Artaud J., New Olivier, N°44 March-April 2005. Database established starting from the actual values on oils of 46 varieties cultivated in France, the productions of 5 French AOC, and oils of 6 Mediterranean countries, which adds up 1400 samples analyzed.
- the first quartile and the second quartile frame 50% of the averages by varieties or names.
- the publications which do not detail the Isomère S gather the oleic acid and the acid vaccenic under the oleic denomination acid , as well as the palmitoleic acid and the acid hypogeic under the denomination palmitoleic acid .
- the publications which do not quantify the contents of acid margaric and margaroleic establish the percentage of the other fatty-acids without taking into account these fatty-acids.
- the values in these lines do not correspond to the sums of the columns, because they are obtained by adding up the totals by categories of saturation independently on the gross amounts.
CategoriesOn the level of the retail business, there exist only two categories of virgin olive oils: virgin olive oil extra (HOVE) and virgin olive oil (HOV). The category virgin olive oil extra is higher according to chemical criteria and criteria Organoleptique S. free acidity (see higher) is limited to 0,8% for the HOVE whereas it can reach 2,0% for the HOV. The parameters of oxidation are also slightly more severe. On the level of the organoleptic criteria (evaluated by a suitable jury), the HOVE is free from defects, whereas a HOV can comprise defects such as dregs or been unemployed up to a level of 2,5 on a scale of 10 points.
There exist categories of lower virgin olive oils ( current and illuminating ), but those cannot be intended for the consumer and is reserved for the trade or industry.
There exist also olive oils obtained by industrial refining, then marketed, after assembly with HOVE or HOV, under the denomination: " olive oil made up of and refined virgin olive oil olive oils " . These oils are less and less frequent in the retail business.
The various categories of olive oil receive a denomination corresponding to criteria fixed by the regulation:
- " olive oils vierges" are obtained starting from the fruit of the olive-tree only by mechanical processes or other physical processes under conditions (thermal) which do not involve deteriorations of oil and not having undergone any treatment other than washing, the decantation, centrifugation or filtration, other than the oils obtained by solvent or mixtures with oils of another nature. They are pure fruit juices and more the rate of acidity of oil is low, better is quality. One classifies them by order of decreasing quality in " virgin olive oil extra" (organoleptic absence of defect, presence of fruity, and acidity lower than 0,8% expressed in oleic acid), " olive oil vierge" (maximum intensity of the defects organoleptic 2,5 out of 10, presence of fruity, maximum acidity 2%), " virgin olive oil courante" (maximum intensity of the defects organoleptic 6 sur10 and maximum acidity 3,3%) and " virgin olive oil lampante" (organoleptic defect higher than 6 out of 10 and/or acidity higher than 3,3%). In the European reglemeentation, the " category; virgin olive oil courante" do not exist and corresponding oils are gathered in the " category; virgin olive oil lampante".
- " olive oils raffinées" are obtained by the refining (industrial) of virgin olive oils, whose free acidity expressed in oleic acid cannot be higher than 0,3g for 100g and whose other characteristics are in conformity with those planned for this category.
- " oils of olive-made up of and refined olive oil olive oils vierges" are consisted a refined olive oil cutting and virgin olive oils other that illuminating, whose free acidity cannot be higher than 1,0g for 100g.
- " oils of Oil cakes of olive brutes" are obtained by solvent treatment of olive residue, other than the oils obtained by any mixture with oils of another nature.
- " olive-residue oils raffinées" are obtained by the olive-residue oil refining raw, whose free acidity cannot be higher than 0,3g for 100g.
- " sulphurous oils of olive" are obtained by olive-residue oil cutting refined and of virgin olive oil other that illuminating whose acid content oleic does not exceed 1,0g for 100g.
Modes of obtaining
See also: Extraction of the olive oil
Obtaining one liter oil requires 4 to 10 kilos of olives according to the variety of olive used and its level of maturity. The method of extraction used has little incidence. However, the mills using of the presses cannot use olives with very strong water content (with poor yield out of oil) because of the excessive fluidity of the paste. This can let think, wrongly, that the their best outputs its.
One can find two types of mention concerning the mode of extraction: " first cold pressure " and " cold extraction . These two mentions guarantee, according to the European regulation, an extraction carried out in lower part of 27°C. The mention " first cold pressure " specifies that oil was obtained with presses, material in very strong regression, gradually replaced by continuous and centrifugal systems, leading to the mention cold extraction .
SourceThe mention of a source is not obligatory (except very particular cases). It is only optional and is thus generally present only if it represents a valorization. The authorized mentions of source are limited to the mention of the country of origin, or a recognized geographical surface (AOC, AOP, DOP, IGP). One cannot thus require the mention of the department or of the area of a surface of name (for example it is it is not a question is interdict to mention " olive oil of the VAr " or " olive oil of Andalusia " because these areas do not correspond to recorded names. Mention of the country of consignment (respectively " olive oil of France " and " olive oil of Spain " ) can however bring the necessary guarantee. The absence of mention means that the salesman does not have an advantage to put it.
Choice of an oilThe categories of oils (virgin, extra virgin) cannot help the consumer much, because one finds almost only olive oil virgin extra in the trade. As for the wine, only a minimal knowledge of the large features of quality and typicities will be able to support the choice of the consumer. Confidence in labelling can be committed in the clear and explicit mentions of source, because these mentions controllable and are controlled; but neither an sales outlet nor an address in an area of great olive-growing notoriety prove a source. The true frauds very rare (another thing that virgin olive oil in the bottle) because easily detectable and are severely punished. On the other hand, " arnaques" frequent, all are based on the ignorance of labelling by the public. They quite simply consist in presenting unspecified virgin olive oils in packing developing, possibly referring to an area particular to great notoriety, or in an environment charged with autenthicity (gone, regional fair, stand of edge of road in area, etc), and the imagination of the customer makes the remainder. In these cases, the bottles do not comprise any mention of source, and it is thus not easy to repress these acts. To secure itself, the customer must simply seek the mention of the country of origin (" Product of italie" , " Olive oil of France"), possibly a denomination of origin (AOC, AOP, DOP, IGP) in order to check its Belief). The consumer must leave the principle that the absence of mention proves that it is about a assembly without definite source .
In the not specialized department stores (standard Supermarket), one will be able to be directed as follows:
- of the price low (approximately 4,5 €) with approximately 9-10 € the liter, one has assemblies without defined source, often consisted of Spanish and Italian oils in variable proportions, and quality is, roughly, proportional to the price. Confidence can be committed in the mark of manufacturing or the distributer which puts its notoriety concerned. The great names thus constitute a guarantee. It is possible however to find oils excellent and less expensive among the marginal marks.
- beyond 10 €, one finds oils with an origin guaranteed by a denomination of source, country or area. Each geographical surface gives a particular oil and each one must find the oil which is appropriate to him. It is thus necessary obligatorily to taste, because one with the same diversity as for example for the wines, for which one cannot say that a name is better than another. In GMS, the prices highest are approximately 7,5 € the 25 Cl, and the quality ratio/price can be very good.
- one will be wary of the rays " products régionaux" , which does not provide any guarantee of source.
In the grocer S fines, Delicatessen S, Caviste S: oils not posting source by a clear mention and specifies are to be prevented, even if the salesman supports that it is indeed a typical product of such or such area, being made deceive itself by his supplier having an address in an area of great notoriety. They are generally oils identical to the first prices of large surfaces, but equipped with a developing packing or gravitational but noncontrollable mentions ( selection , guaranteed , great quality , etc). On the other hand it is possible to find oils of producers not having volumes necessary to provide the department stores, the proof of authenticity having however to be brought by a precise mention of source (country, surface of name) on the principal label.
In the specialized stores out of various oils or olive oils: there is generally in this type of store only of oils of source authenticated by a suitable labelling. One can find generally there a great choice of oils of all sources, and the salesmen know the products well and can make taste the customer in order to know his preferences.
On the markets of Provence and regional stores of the tourist areas, of many tradesmen uses the local framework and the credulity of the customers to sell products without defined source, at the price of 4 or 5 times their value. There are source indicated on the label, and consequently no means of possible fight against this swindle. It can be reduced only by one better knowledge of the product by the customers. Oils of source specified on the label are increasingly present, but however always less frequently than the preceding ones. Obviously, it is very be likely to buy an oil without label.
In the mills with oil of the production zones and near the producers: the swindles are rare there. The purchasers must remain vigilant on the presence of the mention specifying the country or the label of origin, the frauds being carried out with foreign oils. The French oil most expensive is produced by an olive grower of the area of Grasse, which sells it with the prices of 70 € the liter.
Worldwide productionThe worldwide production of olive oil rose to 2,72 million tons (source FAO).
The fifteen following countries account for 99,5% of the total: (in tons)
- Spain: 1 179 100 (43,3%)
- Italy: 550 000 (20,2%)
- Greece: 367 000 (13,5%)
- Morocco: 280 000 (10,6%)
- Turkey: 180 000 (6,6%)
- Tunisia: 120 000 (4,4%)
- Syria: 60 000 (2,2%)
- Algeria: 45 000 (1,7%)
- Portugal: 29 000 (1,1%)
- Jordan: 27 977 (1,0%)
- Argentinian: 10 000 (0,37%)
- Libya: 6 800 (0,25%)
- Lebanon: 5 300 (0,19%)
- Croatia: 4 500 (0,17%)
- France: 4 000 (0,15%)
France imports more than 95% of its consumption, approximately 90 000 tons, mainly of Spain, Italy and Greece. It however re-exports a share of its introductions towards Belgium, the United States, Germany, where consumption very strongly increased these last years. French olive oil exports are minor.
There exists in France seven Labels of origin protected (AOP), according to the EU law. They are the following ones:
- Olive oil of Nyons
- Olive oil of the Valley of Beam-of-Provence
- Olive oil of Aix-en-Provence
- Olive oil of High-Provence
- Olive oil of Nice
- Olive oil of Corsica - Oliu di Corsica
- Olive oil of Nimes
- Olive oil of Provence
- Olive oil by Ekopédia
- Oils protected Label of origin (AOP)/Geographical ascription protected (IGP) on the site from the European commission
- official Organization from French oleiculture
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