Olier Mordrel , (born with Paris the April 29th 1901, dead the October 25th 1985 in the same city), of its true name Olivier Mordrelle , was a committed Breton nationalist in collaboration with the Germany Nazi . It is also known under the pseudonyms of Jean of Bénelais, er Gédour, Calvez and Olivier Launay .
He is the son of Corsican married with the general Joseph Mordrelle (deceased in 1942), originating in the Région inhabitant of Saint Malo and which achieved most of its career in the colonial troops. It was born with Paris where it passed most clearly from its childhood. Paradoxically he learned the Breton in Paris. After studies with the Art schools, he follows the occupation during 10 years of Architecte to Quimper. A son: Tristan Mordrelle .
A Breton youth
In 1919, it adheres to the regionalistic group Breiz Atao (Brittany always). In 1922, he became president of the Unvaniez Yaouankiz Vreiz (Union of the youth of Brittany). In 1925, whereas it had settled in Quimper as architect, it cosigne, with Roparz Hemon, the proclamation of Gwalarn, in the number of Breiz Atao (n° 74, February 1925) where the swatiska appears, symbol chosen for its pagan and pre aspect Christian, in heading of the heading on the life of the party. It is also the first congress interceltic with Dublin where the Breton delegation is composed of François Jaffrennou (the bard Taldir), Olier Mordrel, Morvan Marchal and Youen Drezen. In 1927, he becomes copresident of the Parti Breton separatist (PAB), then his secretary with propaganda.
In 1932, François Debauvais and Olier Mordrel found the GNP 2 (Breton national Parti), which will be dissolved under the government Daladier (October 1939) because of his engagement Séparatiste and its friendships with prompt German dignitaries to weaken by any means France. In Breiz Atao (n° 164, December 11th 1932) he declares, signing of his pseudonym J.B/Jean Bénelais : Jacobin rhyme with Youppin. (...) " Our Jew " with us, in Brittany, it is thus especially the theorist of the One and Indivisible , before Breiz Atao does not take again the swatiska, symbol used also by the Nazis, the January 29th 1933.
It publishes in Breiz Atao , in 1933, the government program SAGA ( Parti the Raised Celts ), under the pseudonym of A. Calvez . He declares on this subject ( Stur , n° 1-2, June 1942, p 5): in 1933, (…) we started, in our old man “Breiz Atao”, countryside SAGA, in favor of a Breton National-socialisme .
In 1934, it founds the review Stur ( the Rudder ), which raises swastika. It begins again, in this newspaper, of the opinions of the field of the fascistic thought by developing a Celtic nationalism. It publishes there in 1938 a letter of Vision with a future ( Stur n°12, 01-03/1938, p. 25-26) defendant the brutality necessary of the main people - let us say if you want, the Scandinavian ones - , and conclusive: Ah! Those among us who have badly with the belly to see cutting the throat of a chicken, would make well go to become hardened a little the nerves every morning at the municipal slaughter-house: council of friend… .
In 1936, it founds the Bulletin of the national minorities of France , later on called Peuples and Frontières, where claims in the name of Brittany and of the principal European national minorities are presented. Hermann Bickler, charged with the heading on the Alsace, is as much openly related to the Nazism than Mordrel, whose Yann Fouéré will take the continuation. In the first number of Peuples and Frontières (January 1st 1937, p. 14-16), in a letter in connection with the Heroic Village fair , the Fleming J. Demeerseman attacks the Jewish body Marianne , by declaring It will not be enough to plead like excuses that, perhaps in Germany, cinema industry is not yet completely released from the Jewish influence.
December 14th 1938, Mordrel is condemned, with François Debauvais, at one one-year suspended sentence for “attack with the unit of the nation”. From July 1938 at July 1939, he is general secretary and writer of Breiz Atao .
Second world war
1939Before the declaration of the war enters France and Germany, and so escaping from an imminent arrest, it leaves for Nazi Germany with his wife, François Debauvais and Anna Debauvais which describes their voyage ( Mémoires of the Breton chief: Fransez Debauvais , volume 3, p. 29-38). Since the Belgium, it joined Berlin. Published since Amsterdam, Mordrel and Debauvais address a proclamation to Breton, condemning the war undertaken by the France the October 25th 1939.
1940In January 1940, the two founders of the GNP 2 address from abroad a " Letter of War " ( Lizer Brezel ) with their militants by pointing out qu'" a Breton truth does not have the right to die for France ". They add: " Our enemies since always and those of now are the French, it is them which did not cease causing wrong to Brittany ".
He is in Berlin “ to try to play there the chart of Breton independence in the probable possibility of a defeat of France ”. In May 1940, François Debauvais and are considered to him by contumacy by the military tribunal of Rennes for “breach of security external of the State and with the integrity of the territory, maintenance or recruitment of a dissolved group, provocation of soldiers to the desertion and treason”. They are degraded militarily and condemned to death. At the beginning of May 1940, it directs there alleged “a Breton government in exile ” (Bretonische Regierung).
It however does not make with François Debauvais figure of chiefs combined in exile. Their presence corresponds to one of the possible policies in the event of invasion successful by Reich. They can circulate thanks to the agents of the secret service which manage the option of Breton independence, and made them deliver passports of " Statenlos ", reserved for the Stateless people.
The return in BrittanyJuly 1st 1940, it returns to Brittany, following the invasion Nazi. He then becomes director of the Breton national Parti and his newspaper, the Breton Hour. At the same time, with the “Congress” of Pontivy, Debeauvais and Mordrel create the Breton National committee. It decides also the edition of a new newspaper the Breton Hour (its first writer will be Morvan Lebesque).
The head of the partyThe October 20th 1940, the GNP is placed under its direction, and regularly conducts campaign against the Vichy government and its representatives regional, with the agreement of the occupant for his policy of pressure on Vichy. The bonds with Célestin Lainé are tightened even more (after the opposition to the Breton National committee), following the action of sound special service with Gouezec in October 1940.
Its political line irritates Vichy and does not correspond any more to the needs for Berlin, which is pressed from now on on Vichy and notes the relative insulation of the GNP in the population; this irrefutable fact will be at the origin of " the palace revolution " party of December 1940. Who more is, Raymond Delaporte supported Célestin Lainé, which ambitionne for a long time to replace Olier Mordrel, benefits from the German desire to choke the useless Breton autonomism made to draw aside it from the direction whereas it launches a reorganization of the party aiming at making it hostile completely independent of the Germans and to Vichy. The doctrines of the GNP will lose in rigor and heat to nourish an agreed separatism.
In November 1940, it affirms: " Our force is in us. it is neither in the others nor in the circumstances. it is neither Vichy nor Berlin which will return to the Breton people strength of character necessary to be freed, to gather and clear a road. Our fate is played in our fibers… Let us not await only us. Then, we will pass through the heavy weather, if heavy weather there is, like a good stem, and our children will be Bretons ".
It gives its resignation, constrained and forced, like that of director of the Breton Hour the December 2nd 1940. It is replaced with the GNP the December 8th 1940 by Raymond Delaporte. This " revolution of palais" would have been supported by the services German, eager to propose another device. (It should nevertheless be noted that the political new line of the GNP carried out by Delaporte is much less collaborationnist that the preceding one.) As for O. Mordrel, it is assigned with residence in Germany.
Put at the variationIt was assigned with residence in Germany of at the end of December 1940 at May 1941. Initially with Stuttgart, it joined Berlin in the middle of January 1941. The professor Leo Weisgerber proposes to him the station of reader of Celtique at the University of Bonn. This last organizes the return to Paris of Mordrel the May 6th 1941. Mordrel obtains agreements to remain in Mayenne. To this occasion, some of his/her friends like Jean Merrien, Raffig Tullou, Jean Trécan and Rene-Yves Creston visit him and take its opinion on a certain number of cultural and political problems. It returns thereafter to Rennes the September 16th 1941, with the authorization of the Germans, after 10 months of setting to the variation, it is presented like " undesirable " by the leaders of the P.N.B., exécré by Vichy, and kept in reserve by the German authorities.
ContinuationIt is authorized and encouraged to make reappear its review Stur in 1942. In 1943, it meets regularly with Rennes Louis-Ferdinand Céline. It and belonged to Radio operator Paris, the radio of propaganda Nazi. The August 13rd 1944, on arrival of the Allies, it takes refuge in Germany. The February 16th 1945, of the negotiations engage between Jacques Doriot and Mordrel about the recognition of a Breton independence within a federation “of Swiss type”. It is the Comité of French release of Jacques Doriot. He flees then with the fall of Allemegne.
The escape, the returnHe leaves initially for the Brésil, then the Argentine, before finding refuge in Spain. He is condemned to death in absentia with the Release, in June 1946. He writes in the review Ar Vro, under the pseudonym of Brython. He returns in France, in 1972, collaborates in real Brittany , under the pseudonym of Otto Mohr (its pseudonym of 1940…) and publishes various books, of which Waffen S of Occident . It confondé in the years 1980 a circle Nationaliste, the Kelc' H Maksen Wledig (Of the name of the Emperor Maxime, " descendu" from insular Brittany in company of Conan Meriadec, first king de Bretagne), with, inter alia, Yann-Ber Tillenon, artist-painter, philosopher appear of Breton nationalism and the European, stimulating federalism of Ker Vreizh, and which is placed in the continuity of the Breton Extreme-right-hand side; and Georges Pinault, alias Goulven Pennaod. In 1981, it supports François Mitterrand. It militates then with the GREECE, think tank animated by Alain de Benoist, often denounced like close relation of the Extreme-right-hand side. He dies in 1985. (See Camus and Monzat, national and radical Lines in France, university Presses of Lyon, 1992).
- (J. Benelais) Thought of a Breton nationalist , (Breiz Atao 1921 - 1927). New Breton editions 1933)
- the Breton Gallery
- translation of the " Songs of the love and of died of the cornet " To groove Maria Rilke. kanenn hini Langenau , Kenwerzel Breiz, Rennes
- Breiz Atao, history and topicality of Breton nationalism , Alain Moreau, 1973.
- the Breton way , Nature and Brittany, Quimper, 1975.
- gasoline of Brittany , Test. Guipavas, ED. Kelenn, 1977
- God-men, accounts of Celtic mythology , Paris, Copernic, 1979
- the Breton Idea , Editions Albatross, 1981.
- the myth of the hexagon , Picollec, 1981.
- Brittany , Nathan 1983.
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