One calls Old Testament or Ancienne Alliance (in Greek: Ἡ Παλαιὰ Διαθήκη / Hē Palaià Diathḗkē ) the whole of the writings of the Bible former to the life of Jesus (which is reported in the New Testament). The word will comes from the Greek word διαθήκη / diathḗkē : will, contract, convention) translated into Latin by testamentum (will; testimony). The Greek word has a broader direction (that of contract) that of the Latin word, also some prefer to translate it by “Alliance”.
The Christian S consider that the Bible is composed consequently of the Old Testament and New Testament.
The Old Testament includes/understands mainly the Pentateuque (or Torah) books of the Prophets, Other Writings, and, for Catholicism, the deuterocanonic Pounds (see section Canon of the Old Testament for the detail and L correspondence Judaism/Christianity).
Which are the original texts having been used to prepare the Old Testament?
- the point of view developed below is that of the Histoire deuteronomist, a form of radical criticism, and not that of the traditional sights. To know those, consult Torah and Tanakh
First of all, it is important to remember that the Bible is an inheritance of the Hebrew people. For the first Christian communities, those to which writes Paul, the Bible is exclusively what the Christians call the Old Testament or the “First Alliance”. It is named Tanakh, by abbreviation of the Hebrew name of the books which compose it: Torah (the Law), Neviim (the Prophets), Ketouvim (Books).
The Bible is born from the exile. As of 605 before J. - C., the Babylonian empire controls close Orient. In 598 takes place the first seat of Jerusalem and an important part of the intellectuals of king de Judée is off-set. The revolt of Sedecias ends in the destruction of the city and the first Temple. Accounts of exile and Deportation (which assigns in fact only 1 to 5% of the people) in two Kings XXI: 25.
Starting from a primitive Deutéronome, written towards 630 before J. - C., the intellectuals write in exile a historical fresco that one finds Deutéronome until the Livres of the Kings. However, it is not a historiography with the modern direction either only one investigation as that which Hérodote will do. It is a history interpreted in the light of a key of reading: the disobedience of Israel to God. One would locate also a “book of the savers” dating from the reign of Josias under the frame of the Book of the Judges and the Rise of David (1 Samuel XVI 2 Samuel V). In the absence of temple, Deut VI: 9 is at the origin of the worship synagogal.
The Prophets of the 8th century before the common era had denounced the social injustices and the disordered states in Israel and Juda. After the catastrophe of the Exile, they become credible. It is considered that their oracles are confirmed. The same deuteronomists thus publish Amos, Osée and Jérémie and support their key of reading. From 540 before J. - C., develops a prophecy of hello which answers the question: “Is there a hope for the people of YHWH? ” It is what one finds in Deutéro-Tests (second Ésaïe, chap. XL: 55) where a group of anonymous prophets publish or republish the collection of Isaïe dating from the 8th century by bringing up to date it. They present the end of the Exile, the return to the Country like a new Exodus and a new creation (Isaïe XLIII: 18-20).
The traditions on the patriarchs were conveyed by the not off-set rural populations. (Ezechiel XXXIII: 24 asserts the ground against part of exiled by means of the figure of Abraham). The written setting is the work of the entourage of Guedalias, the governor installed by the Babylonians. Contrary to the books deuteronomists which preach the separation of Israel of with the other nations, the history of Abraham insists on the need for a peaceful cohabitation with the people of Syria and Palestine.
During the Exile, the traditions on the patriarchs (Election, Release) are in competition with the accounts deuteronomists (distance of YHWH, punishment, conversion, remuneration). Towards the end of the Exile or in the first years of the Persian domination, the sacerdotal medium publishes the narrative core of the Pentateuque with the history of the Exodus and the traditions of the Patriarchs where three times are distinguished from a continuous revelation: origins of the humanity where God is called “Elohim”, the period of the patriarchs where it appears like “El Shadday”, the time of Brace where it is made known under the name of “YHWH”.
One insists then on the sacrificial Culte (Levitique) and one takes account of people in dispersion while placing the obligation of Shabbat (Genesis II: 1-4), basic food rules (Genesis IX: 4), the Circumcision (Genesis XVII), the celebration of the exit of Egypt (Exodus XII) as as many rules of identity easy to observe where which one is.
The Exile is the nodal place whose hold sacerdotal account deuteronomists and authors. At the time Persian, the Deutéronome is separated from the Histoire deuteronomist and provides the final part. The Torah became a portable fatherland.
Canon of the Old Testament
See also: Canon (Bible)
The plan is the following (between bracket, the equivalent in the Hebraic one, with some differences of contents):
- Prophets (Nevi' im)
- Other writings called poetic and sapientaux Books in Catholicism (Ketouvim)
- deuterocanonic Pounds, counted in the gun at the time of the Council of Thirty but considered as apocryphal books by the Protestantism.
The detail of the canonical books according to the confessions is available in the article: List of the books of the Bible, section Old Testament.
Christian interpretation of the Law
See in anglophone Wikipedia:
Complete listing of the books of the Old Testament in the article List of the books of the Bible.
- ITanakh resources for the academic study of the documentary Bible
- History of research on the Old Testament
- Evolution of the reading of the Bible at the XIXe century
- Theology of substitution
- Theology of Alliance
First Will on the Bible.catholique.org site, translation by the Canon Cramp (1904), numerical edition by Richard Bourret, with search engine and other services (what says the pope, encyclicals, homélie, apostolic letters)
- the Old Testament in only one file (Segond 1910)
- Old Testament and Étude Judaism of the historical context and the evolution of the Hebraic spirituality of the Old Testament.
- Old Will/First Will/Hebrew Bible/Tanak: Does What' S in have Name? an English reflection on the use of various designations of the Old Testament by Tyler F. Williams (Flesh off the Religion & Theology Department and Assistant Professor off Old Will/Hebrew Bible At Taylor University College in Edmonton, Alberta)
- list of films based on the Old Testament
Beats-smg: Senāsis Testamėnts Nds-nl: Oolde Testement Simple: Old Will Zh-min-nan: Kū-iok Sèng-keng Zh-yue: 舊約
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