Occitanie and the regionalization of 1981
Evolution of Occitanie since the years 1970.
Toughening of the policy in Occitanie
During 1974 produiren in Llenguadoc manifestations of the vine growers and denunciations of ecological aspect for the power station of Fòs, with the delta of the Rhone river. Robert Lafont to withdraw a boy excluded from the movement occitanista, and decomposition of Lustred Occitana, with the committees of support to the presidential candidate of Robert Lafont, the Socialist Movement Occitan-Volem would be formed Vivre with Country (VVAP), platform or popular block with more than thousand adhered, of contigut left-handed|gauchist and defense of peasants and wine growers, Socialist and self-management. Same the 1974 was based the Village group|Populate of Oc, federalist and self-management, of heterogeneous ideology influenced as well for|by the communards of 1870 that for autonomous Catalonia of 1936.
In 1975 the wine crisis increased, which reinforced the follow-up of manfiestacions wine growers, that they unite in some Comitats d' Accion of Vinherons and March they|they block the port of Seta. There even, the chief of the Federation of Table wines, Maffré-Wallow, claims autonomy and addresses himself in occitan. At the same time, during the summer the VVAP engage the Toristes countryside will defora! against indistinct tourism and little respectful with the environment.
February 16th, 1976 they|they will be celebrated the Days Area Died in Llenguadoc, and in March 4th the wine grower Emili Pouytes, of the MIVOC, be died in Montredon in a confrontation with the police force when the peasants tried to occupy establishments RAMEL. During 1977 they|they continued the strikes and fights with the Ale mines, the glove factory of Milhau and with Fijac, and at the same time the State tried to repeat the blow of Naussac with Chambonchart (Crudeness). In addition, with the Valdeses valleys, the Movement Autonomista Occitan obtained three deputies at the Parliament of Rome, since where it|she will formally ask autonomy for the 16 valleys alpine with 116 minicipis of Piedmont. To the municipal elections of 1987 it would be presented in coalition with the Communists.
With the general elections of 1978 the distribution of seats occitans, for parties, was:
PSF-radicals-ecologists 50 seats
- PCF 27 seats
- UDF 21 seats
- RPR 17 seats
Even if at the elections the votes of the occitanists did not arrive at 3%, for the first time some their claims were assumed by the trade unions (FDT and CGT). Same the 1978 appeared proclamation My feed escorjat, signed by Robert Lafont, Maffré-Wallow and Chabrol Joan-Father and that I collected thousands of signatures, where it|she concludes that the entry of Spain with the EEC proposes, since a contradictory direction, autonomy occitane. A little later in 1979, Maria Clara Viguièr publishes the sociological test Occitan without or knowledge where reflex the situation of the country at the end of the Seventies.
The Spanish democratization caused by the death of the Franco general generated small renaixament friendship occitano-catalana. In 1977 one thus founded Comitat d' Afrairament Occitano-Català (CAOC), with seats in Barcelona and Tolosa, in order to put manifest the close links between the two countries. Each year he convenes acts united like Fires of Sant Joan in Montsegur, Cathares Rene Nelli also supported by the Center of Studies, founded in 1982 for Nicolau Gouzy.
The language, teaching and culture
In 1976 the IEO promoted Federacion of Ensenhament Occitan, which promoted the application of the law Deixonne in all Occitanie, thus like the Vivre review at the school, in order to promote the teaching of the occitan with primary education. Hitherto, one learned only three hours weekly from professional (grace the decree of September 7th, 1971), and with baccalaureat|secondary studies, the language and the culture they were optative. In 1978 they would present a total of 15.000 pupils to the evidence, and they|they would increase to 16.500 in 1979. Nevertheless, Congresos de Maîtres celebrated with Narbona in 1978 and Tula into 1980 denounced the bad provision of the educational authorities on the matter.
In 1980, the first calandretas appeared, nursery schools or you rock with teaching completely in occitan. The first would function in Besiers, Pau and Tolosa de Llenguadoc, with a hundred pupils. In 1992 there were already 30 calandretas in all Occitanie, with 1.500 pupils. In 1993 they|they would sign an agreement with the French minister of education, the Gascon|Gascon Francès Bairó (Francois Bayrou), who made a disccurs in occitan in Pau where it|she would affirm that he|it " the time of the honte" was finished;. This fact that place would give to the celebration in October 1994 of VIIIe Colloque of the Federations of Regional Languages to Public education, convened by Bairó and for Federacion d' Ensenhants de Lenga E Culture of Oc (with 250 assistants), and that they|they gave place to a Protocol signed by Bairó and president Lionel Jospin (Languedocien) in what the State assumed 50% of the expenditure of the calandretes; November 27th, 1998 the minister of culture, the Alsatian Catherine Trautmann, visited Ortès and promised them more assistances with the teachers and creators in the edition of book and discs, and that the General delegation of the French language would promote also the other languages of France. This would enable them to open the first school for 11 years major children, as well as at a school of training of Masters with Besiers. They complain, however, of what the State is long in paying.
In addition, in 1982 one opened the first experimental schools bilíngües, which developed as from 1990, with approximately thousand pupils. There were as schools as pupils proceeding of the schools took bilíngües, but only with mb five hours weekly in occitan (language, history and geography); with the remainder of schools, however, only one or two hours ago at the week in occitan, and not with all.
During the years 1990 the possibility of a certain institutional support allows the creation of the International Center of Documentacion Occitana (CIDO) Besiers, of Conservatòri Occitan de Tolosa, the Arts center of the Abbey of Flavian (Gascogne), of the figure of the person in charge of mission for the language and culture occitanes, of Gropament Independent for|by a Informatisat Dictionary of Lenga Occitana (GIDILOC), the celebration in 1990 in Albi LED Collar•loqui of Identity culturala E Economic dynamism, and the Regional centres of Ensenhament Occitan (I CREATE) to share the public system, to sponsor the calandretas.
Except exit the District council of Llenguadoc-Rosselló would give it in 1985, when it was the first by opening a budgetary heading specifically devoted to foment the occitan and the Catalan|Catalan. Also in 1991 they|they would make the first investigation into the real situation of the language, where it|it showed that it felt in danger but that she had not died yet. This budget would arrive at 9 franc million in 1999 (230 million pts) and at 6 million at the Midday-Pyrenees (153 million pts).
In April 1997 the Collective Auvernha-Calved-Borbonès convened a demonstration with Clarmont d' Alvèrnia on television to ask more presence of the language under the lemma For|By the occitan on television. Never of colors!. In 1999 TV-OC, association to study the viability of a transmitting station of television that it|it will emit in occitan, is born. A certain interest to awake the relations Catalan-occitanes occurs too. Endemés of the CAOC, in 1994 one creates the Occitano-Catalana Foundation, and both project for|by January 2000 the First Occitano-Català Congress.
The regionalization of 1981
Once the victory of François Mitterrand to presidential, it concluded the program of regionalization which had promised. In this manner, in March 1982 one would approve the law Deferre territorial decentralization, where one regards with the areas as communities into full exercisi. They|They will enjoy competences|competition limited in education, social assistance, roads, environment and promotion of economic development, but employee is still considered as tallies|deutsche basic mark departments. Endemés, the regional limits are, basiquement, those approved by|in the Area-Program of 1960 and those consisted Giscard in 1974.
The first regional elections were not celebrated until March 16th, 1986. The results, according to the various areas, would be:
the Limousin: 40,1% by|in the line, 30,8% for the PSF, 3,9% for the FN and 1,4% the ecologists
- Auvergne: 46,5% by|in the line, 30,7% for the PSF, 5,9% for|by the FN and the 1,7% the ecologists
- the Midday-Pyrenees: 41,3% by|in the line, 33,3% for the PSF, 6,4% for the FN and 1,4% the ecologists
- Languedoc-Roussillon: 34,9% by|in the line, 31,1% for the PSF, 13,1% for the FN and 1,2% ecologists.
- PACA|Costs Blue: 37,3% by|in the line, 24,8% for the PSF, 19,7% for the FN and 2,4% ecologists.
- Aquitanian: 41,3% by|in the line, 34,7% for the PSF, and 6,7% for the FN.
- the Rhone-Alps: 43,1% by|in the line, 28,2% for the PSF, 10,6% for the FN and 2,6% ecologists.
The constitution of the first district councils reflexaria on local level fights and political squabbles of the French national policy, confrontations between the various sectors from large divided and the local ascensió of the FN and the ecologists. The VVAP they|they gave support initially Mitterrand, but soon desencissaren by seeing the policy of " régionalisation" that, endemés, did not respect the linguistic and historical limits provinces occitanes (Delfinat was distributed between Provence and the Rhone-Alps, and Guiana between Llenguadoc and the Midday-Pyrenees, at the same time as they|they included Rosselló and Iparralde, zones not occitanòfones), and where either a statute of official nature for the regional languages was not defined.
For the period which goes from 1980 to 1990 one demolishes the myth of Occitanie Socialiste after with the elections of the 1976 and 1978 the PSF is demolishes travelling companions that they did not need any more. At the same time, a handing-over in question in the occitanista attitude, characterized by the adoption of a negotiating pragmatism and integration in the public bodies of management and cultural activity(AP), occurs. In this the exhaustion of a claiming dynamics of identity nature was there in report/ratio which was only viable in assistance with other socio-economic problems, which little by little lost virulence. The territorial, economic redimension and policy of the country which caused two processes|concomitant lawsuits and which are still under development full there also were in report/ratio:
the decentralization and the creation of regional organizations, created already in 1974 and accentuated during the mandate of the PSF.
- the constitution of the EEC, which weakens prominence|main role continental Frenchwoman and that it|she makes it possible in Occitanie to project herself towards the Mediterranean.
- almost the consumption of the process|lawsuit of elimination of the occitan like language of social use and of the loss of species let us occitanòfons.
Endemés, for this period, the occitanism pompeusement lost a social presence which had been increased since years 1960 and 70 towards an irreversible marginalització. This is due, between other reasons, with the extension of the economic crisis to all the whole of the French State, which deprived with the occitanism of some irrefutable arguments provatoris, since disindustrialization and the recession had to stop being " sealing waxes specific of a country colonisé" ; and the come to power in 1981 of the Socialists would neutralize enough the capacity of mobilization of the militants coming from the left; in addition, the occitanists had much|very poca traced to exceed the internal dissensions (Like those of the IEO in 1982), with leader cores too INTEL•lectualitzats and a chronic amateurism that their fact of maintaining attitudes chimerical and unreal, and they|they had poca as well traced by making the socio-economic analyzes of a mosaic occitane which could not be simplified wrongly.
The occitanism did not obtain the insomnia of a rectification " national" had with its|their weak political articulation and moderate capacity of linguistic and cultural mobilization, which aprovocat has a " complex of extinction" , but well the definition succeeded and promotion of a popular concept of occitanitat, that it|it is in connection with values like the participation (sports like the Rugby or the life of place), convivialitat, capacity of integration and art of living. At the same time, a relative economic prosperity occurs, in trailer of the high technology and the tourist exploitation of one around quality, despre' S of the economic recession of the years 1970. And of little territorial integration large industrial plants planned by the State. Endemés, the constitution of the areas like possible and future counterpoint of the central capacity, hustled with some politicians to assume a paper|active role in the promotion of the occitanitat, like they|they made Marc Censi (president of the Midday-Pyrenees) or Domenge Baudís (Llenguadoc-Rosselló). The results of the regional elections of 1992, according to the various areas, would be:
the Limousin: 36,4% for the line, 25,8% for the PSF, 6,5% for the FN and 10,1% the ecologists
- Auvergne: 42,5% on the right, 18,9% for the PSF, 8,9% for the FN and the 11,6% the ecologists
- the Midday-Pyrenees: 38,2% by|in the line, 20,9% for the PSF, 9,1% for the FN and 9% the ecologists
- Languedoc-Roussillon: 30,5% by|in the line, 13,5% for the PSF, 17,4% for the FN and 12,8% ecologists.
- PACA|Costs Blue: 28,1% by|in the line, 22,8% for the PSF, 23,2% for the FN and 7,9% ecologists.
- Aquitanian: 31,0% by|in the line, 20,7% for the PSF, and 10,2% for the FN and 12,7% ecologists.
- the Rhone-Alps: 32,3% by|in the line, 13,9% for the PSF, 17,0% for the FN and 15,6% the ecologists
Also in these elections one moved problems of the national policy. In Provence, in preliminary elections of a district of Nice, the escape of the mayor Jacques Medecin (FN) by corruption caused that the candidate Jeanne Murcia (UDF), elbow for PSF and RPR, one dominates|impose Jacques Peyrat (FN). The candidates of Provence were Jean-Claude Gaudin (UDF), president hitherto of the District council, Bernard Tapie (Southern Energy), with support of the PSF, and Bruno Megret (FN). The FN obtained enough votes in Marseilles due to the high rate|tax with population|city forània (more one 7%) and at the high rate|tax with unemployment (19%).
The progress of the extreme right-hand side
Already with the municipal elections preliminary to Marseilles of 1994, the candidate of the FN, Bruno Mégret, obtained 42,9% compared with 45% of Jean-Jacques Anglade, of the PSF, which counted on the support as well of the PCF as of RPR and UDF. And with the municipal employees of 1995, the FN obtained three town halls occitanes: Jean-Marie Le Chevallier with Toló (with 37,03% of the votes), Daniel Simonpiéri, in Marinhan (with 37% of the votes) and Jacques Bompard, in Aurenja (with 35,93% of the votes), to which wife of Bruno Megret, mayor of Vitròlas (with 52,2% of the votes), would link herself, since February 10th, 1997, Catharine Megret. Their mandates were characterized by the nepotism and bad management:
In Aurenja, for|by closing|clasp of the refuges for the " judicious sostre" ; culturally, they|they promoted Dancing Thés, which organized twelve spectacles of Provence.
- In Toulon, in culture destituiren Gerald Package, director of the national theater of Chastelvalon, and they|they reflect a veto with the Festival of the Book to the Jewish author Marek Halter. With regard to the industrial relations policy, they|they suprimiren the subsidy in addition to 170 entities, at the same time as the taxes increased 5,5%.
- In Marinhan, they|they increased the equipment of books and publications of aspect beyond of to the public libraries and they|they suprimiren menus without flesh|pigmeat at the schools; and in the social field, they|they created French Fraternity, in order to doanr asistència only with poor the " français". Endemés, on January 24th, 1999 celebrated the Congress of the FN there, where the escisió of the leader Bruno Megret occurred, who National FN-Movement, which wants to be more presentable, would found at the same time as a manfiestació of 2.000 people convened was produced by S.O.S of Racism.
With the regional elections of 1998, the number of seats by|in areas was:
the Limousin: 18 for right-hand side, 13 for the PSF, 4 for PCF 2 ecologists, 1 FN and 4 of others
- Alvèrnia: 24 by|in the line, 9 for|by the PSF, 5 ecologists, 4 PCF, 4 FN and 1 CPTN.
- the Midday-Pyrenees: 44 line, 21 PSF, 7 ecologists, 6 FN, 5 PCF and 9 others.
- Llenguadoc-Rosselló: 22 on the right, 10 with the PSF, 9 with the FN, 7 in PCF, 3 ecologists and 16 others.
- Provence-Alps-Coast|Costs Blue: 46 for|by the line, 30 FN, 20 PSF, 10 PCF, 3 ecologists and 12 others.
- Aquitània: 33 right-hand side, 19 PSF, 8 FN, 6 PCF, 7 ecologists, 9 CPTN and 3 others.
- the Rhone-Alps: 18 right-hand side, 14 PSF, 5 PCF, 4 FN, 3 ecologists.
Since finales of the ninety, however, the new hero occitan is Jose Bove (1953), country bachelor in philosophy originating in Larzac and founder in 1987 of the agrarian trade union Peasant confederation (CP). In 1976 he was imprisoned three weeks to invadir military installations; in 1995 in Tahiti to be opposed to the nuclear evidence of Moruroa, in 1996 for|by cremars transgenic cultures; and on August 11th, 1999 to plunder McDonalds with Milhau and to assert cheese of roquefort makes hand. It|It also took part on November 29th in the Summit of Seattle of OMC.
The year 2000 it|it also carried new prospects of articulation of the country. Thus one created an Association of Mayors and the Occitan Elected official, with more than 200 representatives, and so much the town hall of Besiers as the area of Llenguadoc-Rosselló decided to reinforce the Center Interregionau de Desvolopament of Occitan (CIRDOC).
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