Aviron indicates at the same time the Olympic sport consisting in propelling a boat using oar S, and these same oars they, called oars . There exist two kinds of oar, the oar of sea and the oar of river.
Boats of oar
There exist very many types of Bateau X propelled to the oar. Some of these Embarkation S can also use veils (galères, Drakkar S, etc).
The boats with the oar were mainly used for transport or fishing (for example, hunting for the Baleine). Since the 16th century, the boats with the oar are also used with the practice of the oar of competition like to the activities as leisure.
The boats with the oar of the official competitions of FISA, like those used with the Olympic Games, answer precise Norme S (many oarsmen, minimum weight of the hull, bearing fixed, dimensions of the shovels and pallets, etc). These hulls are usable in calm river, on lakes or channels.
The various boats used in competition are:
- the skiff (an oarsman); - the double (two oarsmen in couple); - both without cox (two oarsmen at a peak); - both barred (two oarsmen points some with cox); - four of couple (four oarsmen in couple); - four without cox (four oarsmen at a peak); - four with cox (four oarsmen at a peak with cox); - four of couple with cox (four oarsmen in couple with cox); - the eight barred (eight oarsmen points some with cox). - the eight of barred couple (eight oarsmen couples some with cox)
These last years, the practice of the oar develops also at sea, on other types of boat broader and more resistant than the boats of river.
The oar, Olympic sport
The oar is a sport speed in long composite material or wood boats frayed. The Athlète sat above the level of water on a travelling seat called “slide” and turns the back within the meaning of advance of the boat. According to the types of boat, the oarsman uses:
- a single oar said of point (overall length of 3,5 m to 4 m)
- or two oars known as of couple (approximately 3 m length each one)
The boats of race are long and narrow to reduce the resistance of water. For example, the hull of a eight measurement of about 18 m length for only 55 cm of maximum width. The shape of these boats thus makes them unstable and likely to be turned over. The oarsman must be able to balance the boat while finding a support in possible water most powerful.
This sport can be practiced on a Rivière or a lake. The waves do not make it possible normally to use the boats to the Olympic standards on the sea or the ocean but are possible (see low: oar of sea).
According to the type of boat, the crews comprise or not a Barreur.
The oar is a very demanding sport. The distance from standard race of 2.000 m is sufficiently long to comprise an important of endurance, but sufficiently short phase (run times vary between 6 m 00 S and 8 m 00 S) to resemble a sprint. The athletes must thus have important capacities at the same time in Anaérobie and Aérobie. The majority of the Muscle S of the body (legs, arm, back) are requested to the maximum. Moreover, the blow of oar compresses the Poumon S of the oarsmen during the phase of push. They must thus adapt their rate/rhythm of Respiration to the rate of blows of oar, unlike much of other sports, like the Cyclisme for example, where the candidates can breathe freely.
The relative lack of press coverage of the oar enabled him to preserve a rigorous atmosphere. Long daily hours of Drive, whatever the climatic conditions, as well as a strong individual discipline and within the team are essential, the only reward of all these efforts being the membership of the high level of the community oar . The intense and satisfied implication of the high level oarsmen in their Sport is often regarded as specimen.
The gesture of the oarsman, also called " the blow of aviron"
The gesture of the oarsman is very technical, sometimes in smoothness, sometimes in force; on its perfect execution depends slips it of the hull. An oarsman who proves to be a good technician is thus able to beat, on water, of the oarsmen physically stronger. The sought-after goal by the oarsman is to make benefit the hull from all its force from propulsion, without to slow down it. It is thus necessary always to seek the contrary movements with slips of the hull. Such a fluidity is very hard to apprehend (the beginner with the oar will be appropriate about it), because the movement is complex.
There exist two various phases in the blow of oar.
- " The propulsion" , when the shovels are in support in water, that the oarsman tightens the legs and brings back the arms towards the trunk to move the hull on water. This phase is fast and powerful, the muscles are in tension, the thighs propelling vigorously while the arms and the back remain sheathed to effectively transmit the force thus provided to the shovels supported in water.
- " The retour" , where the shovels left the water, and where the oarsman tightens the arms and folds up the legs and the trunk in order to return in position to start a new propulsion.
These phases are alternate thanks to movements of transition. More the transitions are flexible and fast, more the general movement gains in fluidity, fluidity being the key of slips of the boat.
- Between the propulsion and the return, intervenes the " reference of mains" , where the oarsman tends quickly and skilfully the arms and the trunk forwards, in order to make react the hull in the good sense.
- Between the return and the propulsion, where the oarsman gets busy to carry out a " attaque" rapid, clear and specifies, in order to pose its shovels in support in water without to disturb the projection of the boat.
That is only one very fast summary of the technique of the oar, the best world oarsmen seeking throughout their career to perfect their blow of oar, and nobody can praise himself yet to have a perfect technique. And when well even an oarsman would proclaim such a thing, it would have still to work its physique, to go still and always more quickly on water…
The following nomenclature is often used to indicate the type of boat. A prefix H or F indicates the sex of the participant (E) S. At the time of national regattas one finds then the category of the oarsman, " M" for tiny, " C" for junior (- you), " J" for junior (- E), " S" for senior (- E) and finally " V" for veteran (- you). This prefix is followed number of oarsmen (1, 2,4 or 8). Then, the letter X symbolizes an armed boat (equipped) couples some (2 oars per oarsman). Its absence means that the boat is armed at a peak (1 oar by oarsman). Lastly, the sign + announces a boat with cox while - indicates a boat without cox. The boats of couple being generally without cox, they are followed neither of + nor of - , except if they are barred.
HS8+ = eight of point senior man with cox.
- JF4- = four of point junior woman without cox.
- HC2X = two of couple junior man.
- tiny HM1X = skiff man.
- MF4X+ = four of tiny couple woman with cox.
There exist many types of competitions (also called Régate S) in oar.
Races on line
The races on line take place in spring or in summer. The Olympic distance, used also in the majority of the national races on line is of 2.000 m but there also exists, for the seniors, of the sprints which take place on 1.000 Mr. the boats are aligned with the stop on the level of the starting line in watermarks delimited by buoy S. At the time of the significant events, the boats are held, at the beginning, either by people (the contents) or by a shoe (jaw who tightens the hull). They start with the visual signal of the referee or starting fires. Gaining is the boat which passes the finishing line in first. The distances are adapted to the categories. 1000m for the tiny ones. 1500m for the juniors and finally 2000m for the juniors and seniors.
Heads of rivers
A head of river ( head race in English) is another type of regatta, organized rather between the end of the Automne and the beginning of the Printemps (according to the local conditions). The crews start one by one, following fixed intervals (15 S with 1 min). They row against the watch. The distances to be traversed vary from 2.000 m with 12.000 Mr. Examples of heads of rivers:
- Head off the Charles with Boston with the E. - U. in October
- Head off to rivet Race on the the Thames with London in March
- Head of river of Cazaubon , on the lake of the UBY of Cazaubon in France, where partially the selection of the oarsmen of the team of France of oar is carried out.
- the Head of River run on May 1st on the Marne on 3600m between the Island of Love in Perreux and the Joinville Bridge.
This type of race takes place mainly in England, with the Université of Oxford and the Université of Cambridge. The crews are divided along the course with fixed intervals. The departure of all the boats is simultaneous.
The goal is to catch up with the preceding boat and to avoid being caught up with by the following boat. If a crew catches up with some another, a collision ( bump in English) is declared. The two teams withdraw race then.
The following day, the team catching up with starts in front of the caught up with team. The races are spread out over several days, and the starting grids of the following years are decided according to their results.
Championships of the world and Olympic Games
On a world level, the races in couple comprise:
- four of couple (4 oarsmen) > 4X
- double (2 oarsmen) > 2X
- skiffs (1 oarsman) > 1X
- eight with cox (or eight ) > 8+
- four with cox (or four barred ) (not-Olympic discipline) > 4+
- four without cox > 4 -
- two with cox (or two barred ) (not-Olympic discipline) > 2+
- two without cox (or par-oar ) > 2 -
There exist two categories of weight:
- light weights : men in lower part of 72,5 kg with average of the oarsmen of the boat lower than 70 kg (except for the skiff) and women in lower part of 59 kg with average of the oarswomen of the boat lower than 57 kg (except for the skiff).
- all categories: no constraints of weight
The distance from race is of 2.000 Mr.
Four barred and both barred do not form any more part of the Olympic categories. It is said that this decision was made “to make place” with the categories light weights . As these boats were removed with the Olympic Games, the oarsmen tend to also forsake these tests at the time of the Championships of the world.
The boats with the oar are used since centuries. But there is only very little mention of races of oar before the 18th century. One on the other hand knows the changes of material like the seat on rail, only introduced at the XVIIIe century. Front, the oarsmen was on a board out of wooden and put a protection out of leather on the buttocks, protection which they coated with grease so that slips. Or then the bearing ones: at the time, the oars were hung directly on the boat, which reduced their size considerably, and thus the force of last in water. It is only as at the XVIIIe century as the bearing ones were invented.
The first modern races of oar, in second half of the 18th century, took place on the the Thames in England. The oar then became a very popular sport amateur, attracting hundreds even thousands of spectators. The university oar draws its origin in the first races between the university from Oxford and that of Cambridge.
The current oar is governed by the International federation of the companies of oar (FISA) which organizes Championships of the world since 1962. The oar is an Olympic sport since 1900 (cancelled at the time of the first modern plays in 1896)
Oar in France
The authority managing the oar in France is the French federation of the companies of oar. It is in load of the national events, the principal ones being:
Championships of France of oar long boats
Categories (distance): Tiny (1000m), Junior (1500m), Junior (2000m), Senior (2000m).
Boats: Depends on the categories. Necessarily double or boats of at least four oarsmen.
The oarsmen must run for the same club.
Coupe de France of oar
Categories (distance): Junior (1500m), Junior (2000m), Senior (2000m).
Boats: Eight of point (8+) and Four of couple (4x) exclusively.
The oarsmen must be same league (i.e. more or less of the same area).
Results of the Coupe de France 2007
Championships of France of oar short boats
Categories (distance): Junior (2000m) and Senior (2000m). The short boats should have only 2 oars.
Boats: Skiff (1x) and Two of point (2) exclusively.
The oarsmen can come from different clubs.
Results of the Championships of France boats courts 2007
It is about a competition reserved for the Senior category. It is particular in this that the distance to be traversed is only 1000m (from where name " sprints" who is often given to him). Moreover, the oarsmen qualified in team of France are not authorized to take part in this competition.
Categories (distance): Senior (1000m) and Veteran (1000m).
Boats in couple: Skiff, Double, Four of couple without cox.
Boats at a peak: Two without cox, Four without cox, Four with cox, Eight with cox.
The oarsmen must come from the same club for each boat.
Results critérium national 2006
Simultaneously with the civil oar , developed the oar known as university . The most known events of the university oar being:
- the duel '' Oxford-Cambridge '' on the the Thames in England
- the duel Harvard-Yale with the the United States
A Championnat of the university world is organized each year by FISU.
In France, the largest University Club is the UNA (University of Nantes-Oar) which organizes each year the Régataïades . The UNA also made the small ones in Rennes in particular with the REC Aviron (Rennes Etudiant Club Oar). In addition, on the model of the large Anglo-Saxon universities, this sport is also diffused within the universities and it is not rare that the university championships oppose on long boats the most prestigious names. As example, the finale of the university championship of France saw the central school gaining the title, followed closely by the polytechnic school over the basin of Mâcon in April 2007.
The university oar also allows, under the aegis the French federation of the University Sport , the competitions between French universities and schools at sea and in river .
As regards the oar of sea , every year, is organized the Coupe de France Academic of oar of sea. It is about a competition in three handles (in 2005: Brest, La Rochelle & the Grande Motte) where a classification defined at the conclusion of the three meetings decides which gains the price. Are combined in these stages of Coupe de France Academic of the university values of user-friendliness, exchange and sport. The form of the competition can be variable: in boat or on ergometer, the distances from races are also variable.
As regards the river , is organized a University Championship of France. Academic or inter-academic selections are carried out making it possible to qualify itself for the championship during which the championships are allotted.
Oar of seaThe boats of oar of sea must be more robust than the boats of river in order to resist the waves. They are thus in general broader and more solid masses that their fresh water counterparts.
- of the skiffs of four oarsmen, in couple or, generally barred.
- of the doubles (in couple)
- of the skiffs of sea
With the Spain (only 4 provinces), the Trainière S (with fixed benches) are boats inherited the old boats used for the Chasse for the whale. Their crews comprise 13 oarsmen (on fixed bench) and a cox. Historically, each city or harbor village was to prepare a crew. The competitions are many and very popular. The culminating point of the season is the regatta of Concha with Donostia (Saint-Sebastien).
Following the example boats of oar of river (with sliding seats), the boats of oar of sea become increasingly sophisticated and are now built generally out of carbon fiber. Moreover, other ideas of optimization like the bearing mobiles, prohibited for the official competitions of river, are tested and developed.
Since 1980 and the crossing of the Atlantic by Gerard d' Aboville as a recluse with the oar, several oarsmen tried and made a success of this kind of exploit on board insubmersible and livable boats, thus creating a revival of this shape of oar.
The physical-activity at sea on skiffs propelled by oars or oars is practiced with sliding seats or fixed benches. The competitions with fixed benches most crested are:
- In Catalonia with the llaguts of rem.
- In Galicia, Asturies, Cantabria and Pays Basque with the trainières.
- In the Island of Yeu with whale-boats of rescue.
- In Scilly Isles with the “Cornish pile gigs”.
- In Holland with lifeboats.
- In Canada with boats with ice.
- In London for the great to rivet race all that floats with fixed benches and without bearing.
- In London with barges.
- In Canada, the crossing of Bay of Heats with whale-boats (32km).
In Australia was born the Surfboat, a type of very intense oar of sea. The crews are composed of 4 to 8 oarsmen and a cox. The boat is a Chaloupe very robust able to resist large waves. The traditional test consists in embarking since the beach, to cross the zone where powerful vaguenesses break, to join a buoy with broad, to make half turn, and finally, to use the vague beachcombers to join the beach. This sport refers to the work of the rescuers of beach and can thus be regarded as sporting Sauvetage.
Oar of leisure
To supplement the landscape very rich of the regattas of oar in river and at sea, one finds meetings where the aspect competition passes in the second plan: regattas known as leisure or excursions . They gather experienced practitioners or not, young people or less young people, and have the role to develop convivial relations between the participants, to make discover water levels or cultures.
Examples of regattas leisure are:
- the crossing of Paris on the Seine
- the crossing of Lyon between the Saone and the Rhone
- the Vogalonga in Venice
- FISA Rowing Turns
- the Channel of midday
Oar in room (ergometer)
The ergometers are apparatuses making it possible to simulate the movement of the oar. Provided with electronic meters, they estimate the energy expenditure of the oarsman as well as the distance (virtual) which it traverses. These apparatuses, very much used by the oarsmen in complement of the exits on water and the general musculation, also make it possible to organize competitions in room (like open concept 2). These competitions generally take place on a “distance” from 2000m for the juniors seniors, 1500m for the junior and 1000m for the tiny ones and are the occasion for the oarsmen to evaluate their physical condition. The time of an oarsman on the ergometer belongs to the criteria used by the national federations to select their teams.
The ergometers slightly évincé the Bassin S interiors (invited tanks to row ) which are used in certain clubs to simulate the movement of oar but the ergometer cannot replace the tank to row used by the oarsmen to work to it technical epic.
Design of the boats
The boats and the shovels are designed according to the standards recommended by FISA (International federation of the companies of oar). A technical note with the manufacturers is available HERE in English. The list of the world manufacturers is as for it available at this address: Click here.
Formerly conceived out of light wood, the boats from now on are designed in Kevlar, Glass fiber or carbon. Some skiffs (boat a place) can descend until 12 kg but the payment imposes a weight of 14 kg minimum. One distinguishes, the hull, the bearing ones, and the shovels which compose the armament of the boat.
The principal manufacturers met in international competitions are Empacher, Filippi, Stämpfli, Hudson, Salani, Douglas, Vespoli, BBG and Vega for the boats; Concept2, Drakkar, Croker for the shovels (or oars).
The oar with the cinema
- Give It All ( Ganbatte ikimasshoi ), Japanese film carried out by Itsumichi Isomura in 1998.
- Summer Storm ( Sommersturm ), German film carried out by Marco Kreuzpaintner in 2004.
- The Skulls, secret society ( The Skulls ), American film carried out by Rob Cohen in 2000.
- True Blue , American film carried out by Ferdinand Fairfax in 1996.
- Oxford Blues , American film carried out by Robert Borris in 1984.
- Kimberly , American film carried out by Frederic Golchan in 1999.
- the Regattas of San-Francisco , film of Claude Southerly wind-Lara.
- International federation of the companies of oar (FISA)
- French federation of the companies of oar (FFSA)
- International federation of the university sport (FISU)
Parts of boat
- Lady of stroke
- International federation of the companies of oar
- French federation of the companies of Swiss oar
- Federation of the company of oar
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