Nuremberg ( German Nürnberg in ) is a German city, Bavaria, located in the administrative area of the Franconie, where it is the principal economic center. It is the second city in importance in Bavaria after Munich. The city is located on the river Pegnitz.
First mentionAlthough some Légende S local make go up the origins of the town of Nuremberg to the Roman epoch, of the archaeological excavations did not allow to find establishment former at the beginning of the 11th century. The first document mentioning the town of Nuremberg under the name of nórenberc is due to the emperor Henri III and dated from the July 16th 1050 (the document is compiled at the time of the stamping from a woman of low named condition Sigena ). In the actual position of knowledge, we can thus say that Nuremberg seems to be a politico-soldier creation of the emperor Henri III (1039-1056) being used for the supply of its armies at the time of its campaigns against the duke of Bohemian. The city occupied a central position between évêchés of Bamberg, Würzburg, Eichstätt and Ratisbon, and the emperors of the Dynastie salienne wished to recover and emphasize grounds previously given to the imperial church by the emperors Ottoniens.
The Middle AgesThe city extends around the prominence on which the castle is built. Ground of Empire, Nuremberg belongs to the preferred imperial cities and in 1219, the future emperor Frederic II gives to Nuremberg, which was yet only royal city without autonomy, its famous Large Charter of frankness. It obtains however its complete independence only in the middle of the 13th century, during the keen fights which oppose the emperor to the pope. It is in 1256 qu' it is done for the first time mention of a council in Nuremberg which between, the same year, in the league of the Rhenish Cities. Doors and ramparts are also announced for the first time in 1256, quickly replaced by walls. The Bubble of gold of the emperor Charles IV, one century later (1356), makes of Nuremberg the city of the first diet of empire of each new sovereign. In 1424, the importance of the city is again reinforced and stressed when the Sigismond emperor entrusts the guard of the imperial Treasury to him containing the badges of the capacity, the crown jewels and the collection of relics of the emperor. The city at that time completes its great work of architecture: Eastern chorus of the St. Lawrence church, and the vault of the convent of Augustins. The churches are embellished thanks to the pious foundations due to the fortunate middle-class of the city. The emperor himself and some princes, concerned of their posterity, offer stained glasses to the churches.
RebirthDuring the golden age of Nuremberg, the city becomes a true artistic city, a cradle of German humanism. Indeed, of large artists such as the painter Albrecht To last, which will be made known as painter and engraver, the wood-carver Veit Stoss and the stone mason Adam Kraft create in Nuremberg of works of a great notoriety.
De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium , Of the revolution of the celestial spheres, a book of Nicolas Copernic is published in 1543 in Nuremberg, as well as the Chroniques of Nuremberg of Hartmann Schedel in 1493.
In second half of the 15th century, Nuremberg benefits particularly from the economic advancement of the German cities and increases at the century following very largely its territory at the expense of the countries of Haut-Palatinat by taking share, against Robert of Palatinat, with the war of succession of Landshut at the sides of the winners, the Duke Albert IV of Bavaria - Munich and the emperor Maximilien Ier. Nuremberg receives in division six cities and especially some markets, in addition to many grounds of less importance. The provision of new monopolies appears capital for the city which, like Lunebourg, is an important commercial city, with the crossroads of great transportation routes: the road of Balkans in Antwerp by Vienna, that from Venice to Hamburg by the collar of Brenner, that of France towards Prague by Strasbourg and finally that which connects Switzerland to Saxony and Poland. At the beginning of the 16th century, Nuremberg reaches its greater prosperity. It is, as for Venice, the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope which, upsetting the commercial relations of Europe and the East, contributes to the forfeiture of the city vis-a-vis the ports of Western Europe. The merchants nurembergeois choose to invest in the New World to escape this decline but the emperors do not reside any more in the city starting from 1571. The city is devastated at the 17th century by the Guerre Thirty Year old. The arrival of the railroad however will facilitate its industrialization.
Contemporary timeAs of 1933, the mode National-Socialist will exploit prestigious last old imperial city with the profit of the gigantic demonstrations and gatherings intended to mark the public opinion by their importance, and that, until in 1938. It is probably one of the reasons which justified the Allies, in addition to its industrial importance, to massively bombard the city, in particular the January 2nd 1945. These bombardments almost completely destroyed the historical center of the city.
The historical center and the downtown area are quickly rebuilt. Today, the economy of the east city in particular turned towards new technologies.
In 2000 in Paris, the town of Nuremberg was seen allotting the Price UNESCO of education to the human rights. One recognized the extraordinary initiatives taken to him to encourage education with the human rights. Vis-a-vis its history Nazi, Nuremberg decided to bring an active contribution with world peace like to the defense of the human rights. One created an Information center on the human rights, one regularly decrees an international prize of the human rights and one organizes every two years a cinematographic Festival, devoted to the human rights, to quote only some examples.
the castle ( Burg )
- the Town hall
- strengthened City
- the Beautiful Fountain
- Law courts
- Gothic churches
- SAINT LAURENT ( Lorenzkirche )
- St Sébald ( Sebalduskirche )
- Church Notre-Dame ( Frauenkirche with the Hauptmarkt )
- St Égidien ( Egidienkirche ), the only church baroque in Nuremberg
In 1888 the group Volapük ist of Nuremberg led by Léopold Einstein, vis-a-vis the failure of the movement volapukist which between-tears adopts the Esperanto (which had been published only in 1887), thus melting the first club of Esperanto having ever existed.
the Christkindlesmarkt on the central market, attracts each year of many tourists at the time of the Avent.
There is also the ION, the international week of the organ, largest and the oldest festival of sacred music in Europe.
a great festival of the music rock'n'roll Rock'n'roll im Park . This festival lasts three days.
At the end of July takes place the Bardentreffen , a free festival of music of the whole world, held in the open air and which attracts more: 200000 people during a whole weekend.
In September, it there with the festival of the old city ( Altstadtfest ), with specialities of the area and sports activities. On Pegnitz one organizes a medieval spectacle. Two people, equipped like the fishermen with the Middle Ages are in a small oar boat out of wooden. One with the task to direct the boat while the other, using a blunder, tries to push in water the fisherman of the concurrent boat. This one is also armed with a blunder ( Fischerstechen /les Water tournaments).
- the Germanic national museum ( Germanisches Nationalmuseum )
- the new museum ( Neues Museum )
- the house of Albrecht To last ( Albrecht To last Haus )
- the municipal museum ( Fembohaus )
- the museum of the toy ( Spielzeug Museum )
- the museum of industrial crop ( Museum Industry Kultur )
- the museum of transport ( Verkehrs Museum )
- the street of the Human rights ( Straße der Menschenrechte , close to the national museum Germanic and created by the Israeli artist Dara Karavan)
In Nuremberg, there is the 1. FC Nürnberg, a football club, which gained the Championnat of Germany 9 times and the Coupe of Germany 4 times.
In addition to the kitchen Franconie, Nuremberg is not known for its restaurants where famous sausages of Nuremberg are eaten, the Nürnberger Bratwürste , like for its Lebkuchen , a kind of Gingerbread.
Nuremberg is twinned with 14 cities.
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