The Numidie (in Latin Numidia ) (in Greek nomadia (Νομαδια) country of the nomados (νομαδος) which changes pasture; nomads) is old a province of the Roman Empire located between the province of Africa (at the east of current the Tunisia) and the province of Maurétanie (on the Western coast of current the Algérie). Numidie corresponds in fact to the Eastern coast of the Algérie.
The independent kingdom
At third century BC, Numidie is populated of Berbères semi wandering divided into different tribes. The Romains indicate the tribes of the oriental party under the name of Massyles (of Put Islands, Ilès being the great-grandfather of Massinissa) and those of the Western part under that of Massaessyles. The Berber ones are then used by the riding Carthaginois like .
During the Second Punic War, Massaesyles, ordered by Syphax, is combined with Carthage, while Massyles, ordered by Massinissa, are combined with Rome, after being despoiled by Syphax. At the end of the war, the Romans allot all the territory numide to Massinissa. Its new territory surrounds from now on that of Carthage, except side of the sea.
In -148, to died of Massinissa, Scipion Émilien division Numidie enters the three wire of the king. In the same way, Rome obliges Micipsa, the last wire of Massinissa, to share its share between its two sons and the natural son of its brother, Jugurtha. This last, wanting to restore the unit of the kingdom, makes assassinate his/her cousins, and, in -113, rebels against Rome in which it will inflict severe defeats during a long war and difficult which will last of -111 with -105. Incompetents to gain a military victory, the Romans use of treachery to capture it. In -105, to the favor of an ambush, Jugurtha is delivered by Bocchus, its father-in-law and until there his ally, with Sylla which had bribed the entourage of this last. Numidie is divided: its Western part is allotted to Bocchus, king of Maurétanie, the remainder is left under the authority of a vassal king of Rome.
Dynasty of Massaessyles- Syphax king of Massaessyles 215-203 av. J. - C. marry: Sophonisbe girl of Hasdrubal, died into -203. - Vermina king of the Massaessyles 203-?. - Archobarzane king with of the river Moulouya.
Dynasty of Massyles- Aylimas - Naravas king of numidie? front J. - C tutor of Massinissa. - Metzul - Islands - Zelalsen 225-215av. J. - C. - Ulzasen king of Massyles. - Capussa king of Massyles? - 206 av. J. - C. - Lacumazes 206 - Gaïa king of the Massyles. - Massiva - Massinissa king of Massyles 206-203, then king de Numidie 203-148. It helped the Romans to beat Carthage. marry: Sophonisbe which died some time afterwards. - Wire naturalness: Masugrada. - Dabar. - Gulussa Co-king de Numidie 148-140. - Massiva. - Micipsa Co-king de Numidie 148-140, then king de Numidie 140-118. - Wire adopted: Jugurtha Co-king de Numidie 118-112, then king de Numidie 112-105 abdicates, carried out into 104. marry: X girl of Bocchus I king of Maurétanie. - Adherbal Co-king de assassinated Numidie 118-112. - Hiempsal I Co-king de Numidie 118-116. - Mastanabal Co-king de Numidie 148-140. - Wire naturalness: Jugurtha (adopted by Micipsa) king de Numidie. - Uksintas. - Gauda Co-king de Numidie 105-88. - Hiarbas Co-king of Maurétanie 106-80 av. J. - C. abdicates - Hiempsal II Co-king de Numidie 88-84 and 80?. - Juba I king of Maurétanie 43-42. -…
The situation perdure until the Civil war between Jules César and Pumped. Juba Ier, in favor of Pumped, loses its kingdom in -46 after the defeat of Thapsus against César. César grants to Sittius a vast territory around Cirta (Constantine). Numidie becomes then the province of Africa nova , until Auguste joins together the two provinces in only one unit, the Africa proconsulaire. The latter is directed by a proconsul, which led one moment the army of Africa. Auguste returns his kingdom to Juba II, wire of the precedent, after the battle of Actium (-31). In -25, Juba II receives the throne of Maurétanie, and Numidie is divided between Maurétanie and the province of Africa. The part integrated into the province of Africa constitutes an area of it and, in theory, does not have administrative autonomy, since it depends on the assisted proconsul of Légat S.
The populations rebel of many times, and cause a succession of military actions of Rome, sometimes balanced by serious Roman defeats. Seven years during, Tacfarinas resists to the Romans, in spite of Tibère which transferred one second legion to support the third Auguste legion (only then). As of 39 apr. J. - C., Caligula entrusts the control of the area of Numidie to an staff representative - “legate of the emperor” - charged with ordering the third Auguste legion. Thus it puts an end to a political exception: that of an important army placed under the orders of a proconsul and not of a legate. The Sénat loses the last legion which was under its orders. Although always officially integrated into the province of Africa proconsulaire, Numidie constitutes of it an area with share, placed under the authority of its legate who directs the third Auguste legion and returns of account only to the emperor. It is a province in fact, but not of right, relatively single statute in the empire. After 193, under Severe Septime, Numidie is officially detached from the province of Africa and constitutes a province with whole share, controlled by a imperial Légat. Under Dioclétien, it constitutes a simple province in the tetrarchic reorganization , then is briefly divided into two: military Numidie and Numidie cirtéenne.
As of the 2nd century, the province is christianized, but quickly it adheres to the Hérésie donatist while knowing men of faith as famous as Saint Augustin, bishop of Hippone. In 428, the Vandales begin their incursions in Numidie. They even manage to create there a kingdom between 432 and 534, date on which the province passes under the Byzantine authority .
History of the province of Africa
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