Novgorod (in Russian ВеликийНовгород, Veliki Novgorod , Novgorod Large the ), is a city of the North-West of the Russia, located on the river Volkhov, with six kilometers of the Lac Ilmen. It is the chief town of the area éponyme. The city is located at 552 km in the North-West of the Capitale, Моscou. It counts 218 800 inhabitants (in 2005).
See also: Republic of Novgorod
Older Russian city, it is mentioned in the chronicles as from year 859. Its denomination in Floor timber Holmgard (also Holmgarðr, Hólmgarður, Holmgaard, Holmegård) is thus attested in Scandinavian sagas at one very moved back time. It is however difficult to decide between reality of what milked with the legend. Probably, Holmgard refers only to the south-eastern part of the current fortress, whose name comtemporaine is Riurikovo Gorodishche (it is there that Riourik, regarded as the first monarch of Russia, founded its principality). The archaeological data suggest that Gorodische, the residence of Kniaz (Large prince), date of half of IXe century, whereas the city itself is built gradually starting from the end of IXe century, taking consequently the name of NovGorod (the new city). In the middle of Xe century, Novgorod became a prosperous medieval city, located on trade route between the Baltic and the Byzantine empire. In 882, the heir to Riourik, Oleg Wise the, transports his capital to Kiev, capital of the Rus kiévienne. Novgorod is then the second city of the State by its importance. According to a habit, the oldest son and heir to the monarch reigning in Kiev east sent to Novgorod to control and this same if he is minor. If there is no male descendant, Novgorod is then controlled by Posadniks. Some will become famous like Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin, and Ostromir. Four kings Vikings - Olaf Ier of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus Ier of Norway, and Harald Haardraade - found a refuge against their enemies with Novgorod. Of all the princes, Novgorodiens cherish especially the memory of Iaroslav Wise the. This last promulgated the first legal rules (later built-in the Russian right) and supported the construction of the Holy-Sophie cathedral. As a sign of recognition for the assistance which was brought to him by Novgorod to demolish his/her older brother and to obtain the throne of Kiev, Yaroslav allotted many privileges to the city. On another side, Novgorodiens called their central place Yaroslav. It regains its autonomy after the bag of this one at the 12th century. It becomes indeed in 1136 an autonomous republic controlled by the assembly of the townsmen, the vietche , which elected its kniaz (prince) like with the other functions, including ecclesiastics. At the 13th century, the city is member of the " league of Hanse". Novgorod is at this period threatened by the projection of the Chevaliers Teutoniques. In 1242, the prince Alexandre Nevski gains against them the Bataille of Neva. The trade during the next century contributes to the strong prosperity of the city Hanséatique. In 1478, it is annexed to the government of the Moscovie by Ivan III, prince de Moscou. It sinks then in a decline growing of the fact not only of its dependence with regard to the principality Vladimir-Souzdal for his supply grains, but also of the massacres of thousands of citizens perpetrated by the troops of Ivan the Terrible in 1570.
During the Second world war, the city succumbs to the attacks of the armies Nazis on August 15th, 1941. Its buildings then are systematically destroyed. When the Red Army releases the city on January 19th, 1944, on more than 2536 stone buildings, less than 40 residences will be still upright. After the war, the city was gradually restored. Its principal monuments were classified with the world heritage of UNESCO. In 1999, the city was officially renamed Veliki Novgorod, finding its medieval title partly " Seigniory of Novgorod the grande" (ГосподинВеликийНовгород). This decision makes following administrative confusion induced by the return of the Gorki city, located on the Volga, with its old name of Nijni-Novgorod.
- Cathedral Holy-Sophie (beginning of the construction in 1045)
- Collegial Saint Nicolas's Day (cathedral of 1113)
- Collegial Saint-George (cathedral of 1119)
- the Kremlin, of which certain parts go back to the 15th century
- Église of the Transfiguration of the Saver (1367). The frescos of XIVe century are painter and Byzantine iconographe Théophane the Greek (main of Andreï Roublev)
- Musée of Art and History (icon S and miniatures)
- Anton Stepanovitch Arenski (in Russian АнтонСтепановичАренский, June 30th /12 July 1861 in Novgorod; † 12 February 25th, 1906 with Perkjärvi present Tervajoki in Finland) was a Russian type-setter.
- Mistislav Valérianovitch Doboujinski (in Russian МстиславВалериановичДобужинский, August 2nd/August 14th, 1875 with Novgorod; † November 20th, 1957 in New York) was a Russian painter, taking part in the association of artist " Mir Iskoustva" , and critical of Article
- Boris Tikhonovitch Kojevnikov (in Russian БорисТихоновичКожевников, December 13rd, 1906 with Novgorod, † April 8th, 1985) was a type-setter and Russian professor.
- Michael Vassilevitch Matiouchin (in Russian МихаилВасильевичМатюшин, 1861 in Novgorod; † October 14th, 1934 in Leningrad) was a painter and Russian type-setter, who belonged to the Russian Avant-garde.
The city of Novgorod is connected to Moscow (531 km) and Saint-Pétersbourg (189 km) by the federal highway M10. There exist connections in the bus starting from Moscow, Saint-Pétersbourg and other directions bound for this city.
The railway network connects the city to Moscow (station of Moscow, by night train), Saint-Pétersbourg (station of Leningrad and station of Vitebsk), and the principal cities of the north of Russia following the example Pskov and Mourmansk.
The airports of the city Yurievo and Krechevitsy do not offer any more scheduled flights since the middle of the years 1990. The international airport nearest is that of Saint-Pétersbourg (International airport Pulkovo), located at 180 km in the north of the city.
Images of Novgorod
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