See also: Ireland (homonymy)
The Northern Ireland is one of the four entities composing the the United Kingdom. It is composed of six of the nine county S of the Irish province of Ulster, in the North-East of the island of Ireland. The remainder of the island of Ireland is consisted the Irish Republic.
The capital of Northern Ireland east Belfast.
The Irish and the Scots of Ulster are recognized like regional languages of Northern Ireland.
has Londonderry Air is the played anthem when Northern Ireland takes part in the sporting meetings. The Irish team of Rugby, which includes/understands the Irish Republic and Northern Ireland, uses an especially made up anthem, Ireland' S Call, but one sings also the national anthem of the Republic, Amhrán Na bhFiann, when one plays Dublin. The flax, which was an important industry in the history, became symbol of the province, acceptable by the two communities. The red hand of Ulster is less acceptable.
- Fermanagh or Contae Fhear Manach
- Tyrone or Contae Thír Eoghain
- Derry or Londonderry or Contae Dhoire
- Antrim or Contae Aontroma
- Down or Contae year Dúin
- Armagh or Contae Ard Mhacha
The 6 administrative counties were replaced in 1973 by 26 local councils
EconomyThe peace returned to Northern Ireland, the country quickly becomes the second richest nation of the United Kingdom with an income per capita as high as the Irish Republic.
We note these last years, in particular as of 1998 with the appeasing of the conflict with the WILL GO, the emergence of tourism said " of guerre" , which rests on the visit of sites and monuments which were zones of conflicts, more precisely in the town of Belfast between the Catholics and the Protestants.
See also: Conflict north-Irish
After a war of independence begun in 1916 between the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and the British government and of the unionistic riots (in particular bloody Easter) in north, London agreed to negotiate with WILL GO (in particular Michael Collins). London proposed a treated with the Irishmen:
- the unionistic , majority of the 6 counties of north (see above), would have their Parliament and their ministries but would remain in the the United Kingdom. Thus was born the Northern Ireland .
- the majority nationalists of the south would have a free State, pertaining to the the Commonwealth, with Parliaments and ministries in exchange of a Serment of allegiance to the British Couronne. This new State would include/understand 26 counties (counties of the current Republic). The dissension on these conditions was at the origin of the civil war which began in 1921.
The new State north-Irish is thus directed by Protestant politicians elected by the Protestant majority of the country and removes with the catholics the right to vote. This State crossed the 20th century at the rate/rhythm of the sectarian confrontations and the intercommunity tensions. (Of 1921 until in 1972).
From the end of the the Sixties, the Irish nationalists (catholic) requested rights equal to those granted their comparses Protestant, by the suppression of the rights to vote based on the property of the means of production. The unionistic government (protesting) saw in these requests a threat towards its capacity and its influence on all the levers of the company (justice, police force, housing…). The gatherings were prohibited while the police officers (mainly composed of Protestants) repressed the peaceful demonstrations more and more violently. The administration of Northern Ireland was destabilized by violent one confrontations between catholics and Protestants with Derry/Londonderry (Derry for the nationalists and Londonderry for the unionistic ones), in particular Bloody Sunday (January 30th 1972), where the British paras shot at not-armed and peaceful demonstrators. The conflicts extended to Belfast. There, of the catholic families had to flee their houses which were burned by the police officers and the Protestant crowd opposed to the change (Ardoyne, North of Belfast, 1969). The catholic nationalist districts were at the thank you of the Protestant rioters and the police force. The Irish insurrectionists armed themselves and started by defending the districts before passing in offensive phase. WILL GO reorganized spontaneously to allow the defense of its community. It was and is still very constant by this population.
A new concept entered the equation of the conflict: reunification of both Irlandes. The catholics made a leitmotiv of it. While the Protestants perceived Ireland unified like a threat, in particular on the religious level (Intervention of the the Vatican).
In 1969, London sent the British Armée to separate the two communities and to restore the calm one. But the soldiers, at the beginning perceived by the catholics like guards, became the tools of the government in place and the troops practiced same repression as the police officers. WILL GO then turned its activities against the British army. The acknowledged goal of the nationalists became the release of Ireland of the British yoke. Protestant paramilitary militia were formed to defend the interests of the Protestant people. UVF (Ulster Volunteer Forces), LVF (Loyalist Volunteer Force) and UDA (Ulster Defense Association) took for target of the members of WILL GO, the Sinn Féin (political wing from WILL GO) and the civilians of the catholic community. A conflict of the guerilla type followed, called with decency “Disorders” where explosions, shootings and other acts of war were made by the various protagonists.
Several attempts to put an end to the conflict were tried. But they failed all during the Années 1970 and 1980.
In the Years 1990, London secretly agreed to meet the executives of will negotiate a durable cease-fire. Sinn Féin tried to take part in the discussions. But it was necessary nearly eight years so that the political party settles with the table of the negotiations. What allowed will temporarily put a term at the conflict.
A change of frameworks within the parties facilitated the negotiations which culminated in 1998 with the Accord of the Good Friday (or Agreement of Belfast). This agreement between the parties of Northern Ireland and the governments of the United Kingdom and the Irish Republic envisaged: an autonomous Parliament in the province; guarantees of Human rights; transborder administrative counsels environment tourism, of the regional languages (the Irish and the scots of Ulster); a council britannico-Irish to gather the governments of the British Isles (of the United Kingdom, Irish Republic, of Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales, of Jersey, Guernesey and island of Man).
The agreement allows the installation of a system of local government and division of the capacity between unionistic and nationalists who functions, not without difficulties, until 2002. David Trimble is then Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. October 14th, 2002, the operation of the autonomous Parliament is stopped whereas bursts a scandal of espionage of the staff of GOES. This return to the direct control of London lasts four years.
In 2006, new negotiations lead to the agreement of Saint-Andrews which allow the organization of new elections in March 2007, the resumption of the operation of the assembly on April 7th of the same year and finally the installation on May 8th of a government implying for the first time Ian Paisley, the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party. He becomes Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. The vice Prime Minister is Martin Mc Guiness. The two men celebrated the reopening of Stormont (Irish northern Parliament) on May 29th. Their agreement seems cordial and of good omen for the future of the country.
George Best, footballer
- Brian Friel, playwright
- Seamus Heaney, prize winner of the Nobel Prize of literature
- Eddie Irvine, pilot of Formula 1
- Stalemate Jennings, footballer
- Cleaves Staples Lewis, writer
- Charles Macklin, actor
- Van Morrison, musician
- Gary Moore, musician and singer
- Liam Neeson, actor
- Stephen Rea, actor
- William Thomson, physicist
- Gerry Adams, chief of the Sinn Féin since 1983
- John Hume, former catholic leader of the nationalist party SDLP and Nobel Prize of peace 1998
- David Trimble, former leader protesting of the unionistic party UUP and Nobel Prize of peace 1998
- Dave Finlay, all-in wrestler with division SmackDown! with the federation WWE under the name of Finlay
- Ash, group of music of alternative rock'n'roll originating in Downpatrick
- Robert McLiam Wilson, writer
See tooHistory of Ireland ~ Chronology of Ireland ~ Counties of Ireland ~ Districts of Northern Ireland ~ Towns of Northern Ireland ~ Conflict north-Irish
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